R. F Foster, Modern Ireland (1988): Bibliography

The following bibliographical essay has been incorporated in Ricorso with the permission of the author.

This is intended both as an indication of some of the work referred to obliquely in the text, and as a guide to further reading. It is by no means a comprehensive bibliography for the entire period or, indeed, for this book: more, a personal selection. A glossary of abbreviations will be found at the end.

The most accessible general bibliographies will be found appended to the published volumes of the New History of Ireland (particularly that covering the eighteenth century, referred to below, where the bibliography is more up to date than many of the contributions). Also see T.W. Moody, ed., Irish Historiography 1936-70 (Dublin, 1971); J. Lee, ed., Irish Historiography 1970-79 (Cork, 1981); and L.A. Clarkson, ‘The Writing of Irish Economic and Social History since 1968’, Ec. Hist. Rev., vol. XXXIII, No. 1 (February 1980). General and interpretive works that cover large tracts of the period include Oliver MacDonagh, States of Mind: A Study of Anglo-Irish Conflict 1780-1980 (London, 1983); P. O’Farrell, England’s Irish Question: Anglo-Irish Relations 1534-1970 (London, 1971); L. M. Cullen’s The Emergence of Modern Ireland 1600-1900 (London, 1981),a seminal text of the new history, and An Economic History of Ireland since 1600 (London, 1972); E. Estyn Evans, The Personality of Ireland: Habit, Heritage and History (revised editions, Belfast, 1981); A.T.Q. Stewart, The Narrow Ground: Aspects of Ulster 1909-1969 (London, 1977); and P. Roebuck, ed., Plantation to Partition: Essays in Ulster History in Honour of J. L. McCracken (Belfast, 1981). Irish nationalism (not Irish History in general) throughout the period is dealt with D. George Boyce’s exemplary Nationalism in Ireland (London, 1982); Tom Garvin, The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics (Dublin, 1981); and R. Kee, The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism (London, 1972). Useful collections of essays, with a strong social and economic theme, are S. CLark and J. Donnelly, Jr (ed.). Irish Peasants: Violence and Political Unrest 1780-1914 (Manchester, 1983); R. A. Butlin, ed., The Development of the Irish Town (London, 1977); and D. Harkness and M. O’Dowd, eds., The Town in Ireland: Historical Studies XIII (Belfast, 1981). A comparative aspect is provided by L. M. Cullen and T. C. Smout eds.), Comparative Aspects of Irish and Scottish Economic and Social History 1600-1900 (Edinburgh, 1977); L. M. Cullen and F. Furet (eds.). Irlande et France XVII-XX siecles: pour une histoire rurale comparée (Paris, 1980); and T. M. Devine and D. Dickson (eds.). Ireland and Scotland 1600-1980: Parallels and Contrasts in Economic and Social Development (Edinburgh, 1983). For general treatments of art and architecture, see Maurice Craig, The Architecture of Ireland from the Earliest Times to 1880 (London, 1982); M. Bence Jones, Burke’s Guide to Country Houses. Vol. I: Ireland (London, 1978); and Ann Crookshank and the Knight of Glin, The Painters of Ireland c.1660-1920 (London, 1978). Aspects of education and culture covering the entire period are dealt with in B. Ó Cuív, ed., A View of the Irish Language (Dublin, 1969) and R. B. McDowell and D. A. Webb, Trinity College Dublin 1592-1952: An Academic History (Cambridge, 1982). R. Dudley Edwards, An Atlas of Irish History (second edition, London, 1981) is an essential background work; and there is much useful information gathered together in T. W. Moody, F. X. Martin, F. J. Byrne, eds., A New History of Ireland. Vol. IX: Maps, Genealogies, Lists. A Companion to Irish History, Part II (Oxford, 1984).

Part One
The Contemporary accounts by Moryson, Gernon, Bodley, Davies and others discussed in the text are most easily accessible in C. Litton Falkiner, ed., Illustrations of Irish History and Topography, Mainly of the Seventeenth Century (London, 1904); C. Maxwell, ed., Irish History from Contemporary Sources 1509-1610 (London, 1923); and H. Morley, ed., Ireland under Elizabeth and James I (London, 1890). There is a full edition of the first three parts of Moryson’s Itinerary in four volumes, published in Glasgow 1907-8, and extracts from the fourth part in C. Hugher, ed., Shakespeare’s Europe (London, 1903). Barnaby Rich’s A New Description of Ireland (London, 1610) is valuable (but see note 1, p. 622, above). A Description of Ireland... in Anno 1598 was ed., by Edmund Hogan (London, 1878). Edmund Spenser’s A View of the Present State of Ireland ed., by W. L. Renwick (Oxford, 1970) is essential; for interpretations see C. Brady, ‘Spenser’s Irish Crisis: Humanism and Experience in the 1590s’, P & P, No. III (May 1986) and ensuing debate. Also see T. Stafford, Pacata Hibernia, ed., by Standish O’Grady (London 1896); Tracts Relating to Ireland Printed for the Irish Archaeological Society, vol. I (1841) for Richard Payne’s ‘Brief Description of Ireland’ (1590), and vol. II (1842) for John Dymmok’s ‘Treatise of Ireland c.1600’; Sir John Harington, ‘A Short View of Ireland Written in Anno 1605’, in Anecdota Bodleiana, ed. W. Dunn McCray, No. I (Oxford, 1879); D.B. Quinn, ed., ‘”A Discourse of Ireland”, c.1599: A Sidelight on English Colonial Policy’, RIA Proc., vol. xlvii, sect. C., No. 3 (1942).

The most comprehensive general treatment of the seventeenth century is T. W. Moody, F. X. Martin, F. J. Byrne, eds., A New History of Ireland. Vol. III: Early Modern Ireland 1534-1691 (Oxford, 1976). But it does not make redundant the other works by contributors, notably Aidan Clarke’s essential The Old English in Ireland 1625-42 (London, 1966) and the works of L. M. Cullen and J.G. Simms cited elsewhere. Also see K. W. Nicholls, Gaelic and Gaelicized Ireland in the Middle Ages (Dublin, 1972); D.B. Quinn, The Elizabethans and the Irish (Ithaca, 1966) and J. H. Andrews, ‘Geography and Government in Elizabethan Ireland’, Irish Geographical Studies in Honour of E. Estyn Evans, ed. N. Stephens and R. E. Glasscock (Belfast, 1970), which are all relevant to early seventeenth-century Ireland. Further commentary on some themes stressed in this book will be found in Aidan Clarke, ‘Colonial Identity in Early Seventeenth-century Ireland’ in T. W. Moody, ed., Nationality and the Pursuit of National Independence: Historical Studies XI (Belfast, 1978); N. Canny, ‘Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and the Changing Face of Gaelic Ulster’, Stud, Hib., vol. x (1970); J. Graham, ‘Rural Society in Connacht 1600-1640’ in N. Stephens and R. E. Glasscock, Irish Geographical Studies; A. T. Lucas, ‘Irish Food before the Potato’ in Gwerin, vol. iii, No. 2 (December 1960), which explores an important subject oddly neglected, except by the indefatigable L. M. Cullen. The best general treatments of religion are J. Bossy, ‘The Counter-Reformation and the People of Catholic Ireland 1596-1641’ in Historical Studies VIII (Dublin, 1971) and P. J. Corish, The Catholic Community in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Dublin, 1981). Material about the O’Neill wars and their aftermath may be found in C. Falls, Elizabeth’s Irish Wars (London, 1950); G. A. Hayes-McCoy, Irish Battles (London, 1964); J. J. Silke, Kinsale: The Spanish Intervention in Ireland at the End of the Elizabethan Wars (New York, 1970); Micheline Walsh’s useful commentaries in Irish Sword, vol. ix (1969-70) and ‘The Flight of the Earls 1607’, IHS, vol. xvii, No. 67 (March 1971). Important aspects of the economy are dealt with in D. M. Woodward, ‘The Anglo-Irish Livestock Trade of the Seventeenth Century’, IHS, vol. xvii, No. 72 (September 1972); P. J. Dowden, ‘Wool Supply and the Woollen Industry’, Ec. Hist. Rev., vol. ix, No. 1 (1956); H. F. Kearney, ‘Mercantilism and Ireland 1620-40’, Historical Studies (1951).

Interpretation of colonization and plantation has been altered by much recent work, though T. W. Moody’s The Londonderry Plantation 1608-41: The City of London and the Plantation of Ulster (1939) is still indispensable. So is George Hill’s An Historical Account of the Plantation of Ulster 1608-20 (Belfast, 1877; reprinted Shannon, 1970). Also see George O’Brien’s edition of H. Bourgchier’s promotional Advertisements for Ireland, 1623 (Dublin, 1923). For recent interpretations, an invaluable collection is C. Brady and R. Gillespie (eds,), Natives and Newcomers: The Making of Irish Colonial Society 1534-1641 (Dublin, 1986). Other recent perspectives include K. R. Andrews, N. P. Canny, P. E. Hair, et al., The Westward Enterprise: English Activities in Ireland the Atlantic and America 1480-1650 (Liverpool, 1978); M. MacCarthy-Morrogh, The Munster Plantation: English Migration to Southern Ireland 1583-1641 (Oxford, 1986); R. J. Hunter, ‘Towns in the Ulster Plantation’, Stud. Hib., vol. xi (1971) and ‘Ulster Plantation Towns 1609-41’ in D. Harkness and M. O’Dowd, The Town in Ireland: Historical Studies XIII; M. Perceval-Maxwell, The Scottish Migration to Ulster in the Reign of James I (London, 1973); P. Robinson, ‘British Steelement in County Tyrone 1610-66’, IESH, vol. v (1978); R. Gillespie, Colonial Ulster: The Settlement of East Ulster 1600-1641 (Cork, 1985); P. Roebuck, ‘The Making of an Ulster Great Estate: The Chichesters … 1599-1648’, RIA Proc., vol lxxix, sect, C., No. 1 (1979). a pioneering attempt to define the planter mentality has been made by N. Canny in The Upstart Earl: A Study of the Social and Mental World of Richard Boyle, First Earl of Cork 1566-1643 (Cambridge, 1982).

Settlement and colonization after mid-century are illuminated by K. Bottigheimer, English Money and Irish Land: The Adventurers’ in the Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland (Oxford, 1971); R. C. Simington, ed., The Transplantation to Connacht (IMC, Dublin, 1970); J.G. Simms, The Williamite Confiscation in Ireland 1690-1703 (London, 1956). H. P. Prendergast, The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland (Second edition Dublin, 1875), remains a source of value. The Establishment of a planter family can be traced in Elizabeth Bowen’s highly charged Bowen’s Court (London, 1942).

The political upheavals of the mid-seventeenth century inspired several great Victorian editions of original material - notably J. T. Gilbert’s Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland from AD 1641 to 1652 (three vols., Dublin, 1879) and History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland 1641-9 (six vols., Dublin, 1882-90). Also see R. Dunlop, Ireland under the Commonwealth: Being a Selection of Documents Relating to the Government of Ireland from 1651 to 1659 (two vols., Manchester, 1913); James Hogan, ed., Letters and Papers Relating to the Irish Rebellion 1642-6 (IMC, Dublin, 1936); and Aidan Clarke, ed., ‘A Discourse between Two Councillors of State, the One of England and the Other of Ireland’, Anal. Hib., No. 26 (1970).

Of secondary sources, the work of Aidan Clarke already mentioned is essential; so is T. C. Barnard’s Cromwellian Ireland: English Government and Reform in Ireland 1649-60 (Oxford, 1975). The best treatments of Wentworth’s controversial Irish career are H. Kearney, Strafford in Ireland 1633-41: A Study in Absolutism (Manchester, 1961) and T. O. Ranger, ‘Strafford in Ireland: A Revaluation’ in T. H. Aston, ed., Crisis in Europe 1550-1660 (London, 1965). J. C. Beckett’s Confrontations: Studies in Irish History (London, 1962) contains valuable essays on ‘Irish-Scottish Relations in the Seventeenth Century’ and ‘The Confederation of Kilkenny Reviewed’. David Stevenson’s Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates: Scottish-Irish Relations in the Mid-seventeenth Century (Belfast, 1981) provides a uniquely valuable treatment that spans events in both countries. There are numerous individual military studies in the Irish Sword. For the controversies (and historiography) surrounding the 1641 rising see M. Perceval-Maxwell, ‘The Ulster Rising of 1641 and the Depositions’, IHS, vol. xxi, No. 82 (September 1978) and R. Gillespie, ‘The End of an Era: Ulster and the Outbreak of the 1641 Rising’ in J. Brady and R. Gillespie, Natives and Newcomers: The Making of Irish Colonial Society, 1534-1641.

First-hand material on later seventeenth-century Ireland may be found in William Petty, Political Anatomy of Ireland (reprinted by IUP, Dublin, 1970); the extracts from James Dineley’s ‘Tour’ in RSAI jn., vols.iv (1856), v (1858), vii (1862-3), viii (1864-6), ix (1867) and xliii (1913); J. T. Gilbert’s edition of A Jacobite Narrative of the War in Ireland (Dublin, 1892; reprinted with an Introduction by J. G. Simms, 1971); and R.H. Murray, ed., The Journal of John Stevens 1689-91 (Oxford, 1912). Edward MacLysaght’s Irish Life in the Seventeenth Century: After Cromwell (Dublin, 1939) is a classic study, and reprints John Dunton’s absorbing contemporary letters in an appendix. Also see M. MacCurtain, ‘Rural Society in Post-Cromwellian Ireland’ in Art Cosgrove and Donal McCartney, eds., Studies in Irish History Presented to R. dudley Edwards (Dublin, 1979); J. G. Simms, ‘Dublin in 1685’, IHS, vol. xiv, No. 55 (March 1965); L. M. Cullen, Anglo-Irish Trade 1660-1800 (Manchester, 1968); T.C. Barnard, ‘Sir William Petty, His Kerry Estate and Irish Population’, IESH, vol. vi (1979); ‘Sir William Petty as Kerry Ironmaster’, RIA Proc., vol. lxxxii, sect. C, No. 1 (1982); and ‘Sir William Petty, Irish Landowner in H. Lloyd-Jones, V. Pearl, B. Worden (eds), History and Imagination: Essays in Honour of H.R. Trevor-Roper (London, 1981). Questions of government economic policy are illuminated in H. Kearney, ‘The political Background to English Mercantilism 1695-1700’, Ec.Hist. Rev., Vol.xi, No. 3 (1959) and P. Kelly, ‘The Irish Woollen Export Prohibition Act of 1699: Kearney Revisited’, IESH, vol. vii (1980). Rolf Loeber, ‘Irish Country Houses and Castles of the LAte Caroline Period’, Quarterly Bulletin of the Irish Georgian Society, vol. xvi (January-June 1973), breaks new ground.

For the Jacobite era, J.G. Simms, Jacobite Ireland 1685-91 (London, 1969) is lucid and definitive. Also see J. I. McGuire, ‘The Irish Parliament of 1692’ in T. Bartlett and D. Hayton, eds., Penal Era and Golden Age: Essays in Irish History 1690-1800 (Belfast, 1979) and ‘The Church of Ireland and the Glorious Revolution of 1688’ in Art Cosgrove and Donal McCartney, Studies in Irish History; and John Miller, ‘The Earl of Tyrconnell and James II’s Irish Policy 1685-8’ Hist. Jn., vol. xx, No. 4 (1977). A Rare treatment from the Continental perspective is provided by W. Troost, William III and the Treaty of Limerick (1691-7): A Study of His Irish Policy (Leiden, 1983).

Literary and cultural issues throughout the period are dealt with in T. Dunne, ‘The Gaelic Response to Conquest and Colonization: The Evidence of the Poetry’, Stud. Hib., vol. xx (1980); N. Canny, ‘The Formation of the Irish Mind: Religion, Politics and Gaelic Irish Literature 1580-1750’, P & P, No. 95 (May 1982); O. Bergin, Irish Bardic Poetry (Dublin, 1970); C. O’Rahilly, Five Seventeenth-century Political Poems (Dublin, 1952); J. J. Silke, ‘Irish Scholarship and the Renaissance 1580-1673’, Studies in the Renaissance, vol. xx (1973); W. B. Stanford, ‘Towards a History of Classical Influences in Ireland’, RIA proc., vol. lxx, sect. C, No. 3 (1970); R. B. McDowell and D. A. Webb, Trinity College, Dublin, 1592-1952: An Academic History (Cambridge, 1982); K. T. Hoppen, The Common Scientist in the Seventeenth Century: A Study of the Dublin Philosophical Society 1683-1708 (London, 1970); T. C. Barnard, ‘Miles Symner and the New LEarning in Seventeenth-century Ireland’, RASI jn., vol. cii (1972) and ‘The Hartlib Circle and the Origins of the Dublin Philosophical Society’, IHS, vol. xix, No. 74 (March 1974). Geoffrey Keating’s Foras Feasa ar Eirinn: The History of Ireland, referred to in the text, was edited by David Comyn and P. S. Dineen for the Irish Texts Society in four volumes (London, 1902-14).

Part Two
The literature of contemporary letters and memoirs for the eighteenth century is overwhelming, and often very vivid - but remember the caveats on pp. 167-70, above. A few of the most accessible sources, which provide material quoted in the text, include H. Williams (editor), The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift (five vols., Oxford, 1963-5); Emily Charlotte Boyle, Countess of Cork and Orrery(ed.), The Orrery Papers (two vols., London, 1902); Lady Llandover, ed., The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs Delany (six vols., London, 1861-2); Esther Hewitt, ed., Lord Shannon’s Letters to His Son: A Calendar of the Letters Written by the Second Earl of Shannon to His Son, Viscount Boyle 1790-1802 (PRONI, Belfast, 1982); B. Fitzgerald, ed., The Correspondence of Emily, Duchess of Leinster 1731-1814 (three vols., IMC, Dublin 1949-57); Jonah Barrington, Personal Sketches of His Own Times (three vols. London, 1832) and The Rise and Fall of the Irish Nation (Paris, 1833); Dublin, 1853); and C. L. and R .E. Ward (editors), The Letters of Charles O’Conor of Belanagare (two vols., Ann Arbor, Michigan 1980), a vital source for the life of the Catholic gentry during this period. The condition of the Catholic Church in the early part of the century is interestingly profiled by Revd Hugh Fenning (editor), The Fottrell Papers 1721-39: An Edition of the Papers Found on the Person of Father John Fottrell Provincial of the Dominicans in Ireland, at His Arrest in 1739 (PRONI, Belfast, 1980). There is much Irish material in T. Coupland, R. B. McDowell, et al., eds., The Correspondence of Edmund Burke (ten vols., Cambridge and Chicago, 1958-78), especially vols. VII and IX. For social background, see Thomas Molyneux’s journeys to Connacht an dKerry in 1709, reprinted in Miscellany of the Irish Archaeological Society (1846) and Síle ní Chinneíde’s invaluable edition of Coquebert de Montbret’s Irish journals in 1790-91: N. Munster Antiq. Jn., vols.v (1948) and xiv (1971); Galway Arch. Soc. Jn., vols. xxv (1952-3), xxxv (1976) and xxxvi (1977-8); Cork Hist. Soc. Jn., vols.lxxviii (1973) and lxxix (1974); Kerry Arch. Soc. Jn., vol. vi (1973); Kildare Arch. Soc. jn., vol. xv (1974); RSAI Jn., vol. civ (1974). More familiar social background is supplied, inevitably, by Arthur Young’s Tour of Ireland 1776-9, ed. A. W. Hutton (two vols., London, 1892).

Original materials are presented attractively and conveniently by the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland in their facsimile series, and two of their best productions deal with this period: ‘The Act of Union’ (nos.41-60, 1973) and ‘Robert Emmet: The Insurrection of July 1803’ (nos. 181-200, 1976).

The most apparently comprehensive general work on the eighteenth century is T.W. Moody and W.E. Vaughan, eds., A New History of Ireland. Vol.IV: Eighteenth-century IReland 1691-1800 (Oxford, 1986), but it is not necessarily the most stimulating or even the most up to date. The lively collection edited by T. Bartlett and D. Hayton, Penal Era an dGolden Age: Essays in Irish History 1690-1800, is essential reading, and there is relevant material in P. J. Corish, ed., Radicals, Rebels and Establishments: Historical Studies XV (Belfast, 1985). Also see W. H. Crawford and B. Trainor, eds., Aspects of Irish Social History 1750-1800 (PRONI, Belfast, 1969) as well as the more specific works on economic and social history mentioned below. The best general history is D. Dickson, New Beginnings: Irish History 1660-1800 (Dublin, 1987).

Regarding subjects emphasized in the text, Swift’s contribution to Ascendancy culture is dealt with in O. W. Ferguson, Jonathan Swift and Ireland (Urbana, Illinois, 1962) and L. A. Landa, Swift and the Church of Ireland (Oxford, 1954); also see Swift’s Irish Tracts and Sermons, ed. H. Davis and L.A. Landa (Oxford, 1968). A. P. W. Malcomson’s brilliant John Foster: The Politics of the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy (Oxford, 1978) is far more than a biography, and is much the best book on the high politics of the period. Malcomson has also illuminated aspects of social history in The Pursuit of the Heiress: Aristocratic Marriage in Ireland 1750-1820 (Belfast, PRONI, 1962) and ‘Absenteeism in Eighteenth-century Ireland’, IESH, vol. i (1974). On the latter subject, see also D. Large, ‘The Wealth of the Greater Irish Landowners 1750-1815’, IHS, vol. xv, No. 57 (March 1966).

Maurice Craig’s Dublin 1660-1860: A Social and Architectural History (Dublin, 1969) is a chatty classic; and the Records of Eighteenth-century Domestic Architecture and Decoration in Ireland, published by the first Irish Georgian Society (five vols., Dublin, 1909-13), are of unique value. Edward McParland, James Gandon: Vitruvius Hibernicus (London, 1985) is a definitive work. R. Munster, The History of the Irish Newspaper 1685-1760 (Cambridge, 1967) covers an important subject; R. B. McDowell’s Irish Public Opinion 1750-1800 (LOndon, 1944) remains indispensable. Anglo-Irish literature is given an idiosyncratic and vigorous treatment in W.J. McCormack, Ascendancy and Tradition in Anglo-Irish Literary History from 1789-1939 (Oxford, 1985).

The economic and social history of the eighteenth century has been influentially reinterpreted on a broad front by L.M. Cullen; besides works by him already cited, see ‘Problems in the Reinterpretation and Revision of Eighteenth-century Irish Economic History’, RHS Trans., fifth ser., vol. xvii (1967); ‘Irish History without the Potato’, P & P, No. 40 (July 1968); ‘The Hidden Ireland: Reassessment of a concept’, Stud. Hib., vol. ix (1969). A vital background work is T. W. Freeman, Pre-Famine Ireland: A Study in historical Geography (Manchester, 1957). Specific economic aspects are dealt with in J. O’Donovan, The Economic History of Livestock in Ireland (Cork, 1940); P. Lynch and J. Vaizey, Guinness’s Brewery in the Irish Economy 1759-1876 (Cambridge, 1960); C. Gill, The Rise of the Irish Linen Industry (Oxford, 1925 reprinted 1964). The minefield of demographic history was first systematically explored in K. H. Connell’s The Population of Ireland 1750-1845 (Oxford, 1950); for a critique, see articles on marriage and population growth by M. Drake and J. Lee in Ec.Hist.Rev., vol. xvi, No. 2 (1963) and vol. xxi, No. 2 (1968), and for a magisterial recent survey, S. Daultrey, D. Dickson and C. Ó Gráda, ‘Hearth Tax, Household Size and Irish Population Change 1672-1821’, RIA Proc., vol. lxxxii, sect. C., No. 6 (1982). The same authors have also written ‘Eighteenth-century Population: New Perspectives from Old Sources’, Jn. Econ. Hist., vol. xli (1981); also see C. Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, ‘New Developments in Irish Population History 1700-1850’, Ec. hist. Rev., vol. xxxvii, No. 4 (November 1984). For population movement and emigration, see R. H. Dickson, Ulster Emigration to Colonial America 1718-85 (Belfast, 1966).

Social history is sensitively, if rather impressionistically, explored in K. H. Connell, Irish Peasant Society (Oxford, 1968). For the lives of Catholics in eighteenth-century IReland, see C. Connolly, Priests and People in Pre-Famine Ireland 1780-1845 (Dublin, 1982); J. A. Murphy, ‘The Support of the Catholic Clergy in Ireland 1750-1850’ in Historical Studies V (London, 1965); M. Wall, ‘the Rise of a Catholic Middle Class in Eighteenth-century Ireland’, IHS, vol. xi. No. 42 (September 1958); J. Brady, Catholics and Catholicism in the Eighteenth-century Press (Maynooth, 1965); P.J. Corish, The Catholic Community in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. The Classic treatment of the Penal Laws is in M. Wall, The Penal Laws 1691-1790: Church and State from the Treaty of Limerick to the Accession of George III (Dundalk, 1961), but forthcoming work from S. Connolly will present a different perspective. For an idiosyncratic view, see R.E. Burns, ‘The Irish Penal Code and Some of Its Historians’, Rev. of Pols., vol. xxi (1959) and ‘The Irish Popery Laws: A Study of Eighteenth-century Legislation and Behaviour’, ibid., vol. xxiv (1962). An important series of articles by Gerard Lyne on land tenure in Kerry from the late seventeenth to the late eighteenth centuries shows the Catholic position in an interesting light: see jn. of Kerry Arch. and Hist. Soc., nos. 10-12 (1977)-9. For Gaelic culture, see works already cited by B. Ó Cuív and N. Canny; and R. A. Breatnach, ‘The End of a Tradition: a Survey of Eighteenth-century Gaelic Literature’, Stud, Hib., vol. i (1961).

Articles on popular protest will be found in C. H. E. Philpin, ed., Nationalism and Popular Protest in Ireland (Cambridge, 1987), as well as in S. Clark and J. Donnelly, Jr, Rish Peasants: Violent and Political Unrest 1780-1914. Also see J. Donnelly, Jr, ‘The Whiteboy Movement 1761-5’, IHS, vol. xxi No. 81 (March 1978), ‘The Rightboy Movement 1765-8’, Stud.Hib., vol. xvii (1977) and ‘Hearts of Oak, Hearts of Steel’, ibid., vol. xxi (1981); and M. Bric, ‘Priest, Parson and Politics: The Rightboy Protest in County Cork 1785-88’, P & P, No. 100 (August1983).

The background to, and structure of, high political activity is dealt with in D. Hayton, ‘The Crisis in Ireland and the Disintegration of Queen Anne’s Last Ministry’, IHS, vol. xxii, No. 87 (March 1981); E. M. Johnston, Great Britain and Ireland 1760-1800 (Edinburgh, 1963); and A.P.W. Malcomson, John Foster: The Politics of the Anglo-Irish Ascendancy. There are numerous pious ‘Memoirs’ of Ascendancy politician like Grattan, Flood and Charlemont, usually compiled by members of their families in the early nineteenth century, which should be handled gingerly. For an interpretive approach to eighteenth-century political activity, see T. Bartlett and D. Hayton’s Penal Era and Golden Age: Essays in Irish History 1690-1800; T. Bartlett, ‘Opposition in Late Eighteenth-century Ireland: The Case of the Townshend Viceroyalty’, IHS, vol. xxii, No. 88 (September 1981); A. P. W. Malcomson, ‘The Newtown Act of 1748: Revision and Reconstruction’, ibid., vol. xviii, No. 71 (March 1973); Paul Kelly, ‘British and Irish Politics in 1785’, E H R, vol. xc, No. 356 (July 1975); J. C. D. Clark, ‘Whig Tactics and Parliamentary Precedent: The English Management of Irish Politics 1754-56’, Hist. Jn., vol. xxxi, No. 2 (1978); J. C. Beckett, ‘Anglo-Irish Constitutional Relations in the Later Eighteenth Century’ in Confrontations: Studies in Irish History; G.C. Bolton, The Passing of the Irish Act of Union (Oxford, 1966).

Interactions between Irish and American upheavals in the later eighteenth century are explored in D.N. Doyle, Ireland, Irishmen and Revolutionary America 1760-1820 (Dublin, 1981). Also see M. R. O’Connell, Irish Politics and Social Conflict in the Age of the America Revolution (Philadelphia, 1965) and Owen Dudley Edwards, ‘The Impact of the American Revolution in Ireland’ in R.R. Palmer, The Impact of the American Revolution Abroad (Washington, 1976). For background, and an imperial perspective, see F.G. James, Ireland in the Empire 1688-1770 (Cambridge, Mass., 1973). The late eighteenth-century crisis is dealt with at rather rambling length in R. B. McDowell, Ireland in the Age of Imperialism and Revolution 1760-1801 (Oxford, 1979) and with pithy élan in G. Ó Tuathaigh, Ireland before the Famine 1798-1848 (Dublin, 1972); but for an original focus, and a contribution of real incisiveness and originality, Marianne Elliott’s Partners in Revolution: The United Irishmen and France (London, 1982) is indispensable. Also see her ‘Origins and Transformation of Early Irish Republicanism’, Int. Rev. Soc. Hist., vol. xxiii (1978) and A. T. Q. Stewart, ‘”A Stable, Unseen Poers”: Dr William Drennan and the Origins of the United Irishmen’ in John Bossy, ed., Essays Presented to Michael Roberts (Belfast, 1976). A different perspective on Wolfe Tone is provided by T. Dunne’s combative Wolfe Tone: Colonial Outsider (Cork, 1981). An essential text remains the Life of Theobald Wolfe Tone... Written by Himself and Continued by His Son, ed., R.B. O’Brien (two vols., London, 1893). Pending Marianne Elliott’s biography, Frank MacDermot’s Theobald Wolfe Tone and His Times (London, 1939; revised edition Dublin, 1968) remains useful. J.Donnelly, Jr synthesizes recent work on the 1790s in his review article ‘Republicanism and Reaction in the 1790s’, I E S H, vol. xi (1984). Important essays by D. Dickson on taxation, and D. Miller on unrest in Armagh appear in S. Clark and J. Donnelly, Jr, Irish Peasants: Violence an dPolitical Unrest 1780-1914; there is also much of relevance in P. J. Corish, Radicals, Rebels and Establishments: Historical Studies XV, notably T. Bartlett’s piece on ‘Indiscipline and Disaffection in the Armed Forces’. See Also his ‘An End to Moral Economy: The Irish Militia Disturbances of 1793’, P & P, No. 99 (May 1983). Bartlett has also edited absorbing material on Defenderism in I H S, vol. xxiv, No. 95 (May 1985). For the events of 1798, T. Pakenham’s The Year of Liberty (London, 1969) is unequalled. Bishop Stock’s ‘Narrative’ of the Year of the French: 1978 has been edited by Grattan Freyer (Ballina, 1982) and is a vivid eye-witness account of Humbert’s invasion. Ulster themes are dealt with in A. T. Q. Stewart, The Narrow Ground: Aspects of Ulster 1609-1969 and J.S. Reid’s monumental History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland (three vols., Belfast, 1867). Also see J.C. Beckett, Protestant Dissent in Ireland 1687-1780 (London, 1948) and D. W. Miller, ‘Presbyterianism and “Modernization” in Ulster’, P & P, No. 80 (August 1978). The important subject of history-writing in eighteenth-century Ireland is only beginning to be explored, but see Walter Love, ‘Charles O’Conor of Belanagare and Thomas Leland’s “Philosophical” history of Ireland’, IHS, vol. xiii, No. 49 (March 1962) and J. Hill, ‘Popery and Protestantism, Civil and Religious Liberty: The Disputed Lessons of Irish History, 1690-1812’, P & P, No. 118 (February 1988).

Part Three
The great volume of primary materials about nineteenth-century IReland is too vast to itemize here, though references to some of the first-hand material will be found in footnotes. The many government investigations into Irish conditions are both accessible and absorbing: especially the Whateley Commission of inquiry into the condition of the poorer classes in Ireland, which reported 1835-6, and the Devon Commission inquiring into occupation of land in Ireland, which reported in 1845. Two ancillary publications of the New History of Ireland provide vital statistics: W. E. Vaughan and A .J. Fitzpatrick, eds., Irish Historical Statistics: Population 1821-71 (Dublin, 1978) and B. M. Walker, ed., Parliamentary Election Results in Ireland 1801-1922 Dublin, 1978). The literature of contemporary memoirs, diaries, travellers’ accounts and so on bulks large, and is often enlightening; a few accessible are listed below.

An excellent survey of the early nineteenth century is provided by G. Ó Tuathaigh, Ireland before the Famine 1798-1848; the works cited by Oliver MacDonagh and P. O’Farrell at the beginning of this survey provide illuminating and often iconoclastic insights into the whole period of the Union. Also see F. S. L. Lyons and R. A. J. Hawkins, eds., Ireland under the Union: Varieties of Tension. Essays in Honour of T. W. Moody (Oxford, 1980). Mary Daly’s Social and Economic History of Ireland since 1800 (Dublin, 1981) is a valuable introduction. The administrative system is delineated in R. B. McDowell, The Irish Administration 1800-1914 (London, 1964).

For early nineteenth-century politics, tracts like Thomas Moore’s Memoirs of Captain Rock (anonymously published in London, 1824) and J. W. Croker’s The State of Ireland Past and Present (London, 1808), which are both referred to in the text, provide perceptions. Maurice O’Connell’s great edition of The Correspondence of Daniel O’Connell (Eight vols., IMC, Dublin, 1972-80) is essential. Fergus O’Ferrall, Catholic Emancipation: Daniel O’Connell and the Birth of Irish Democracy (Dublin, 1985) is a work of great thoroughness and insight; and there are useful essays in K. B. Nowlan and M. R. O’Connell, eds., Daniel O’Connell: Portrait of a Radical (Belfast, 1984). The definitive biography is, or will be, Oliver MacDonagh’s: the first volume is The Hereditary Bondsman (London, 1988). also see A. Macintyre, The Liberator: Daniel O’Connell and the Irish Party 1830-47 (London, 1965) and K.B. Nowlan, The Politics of Repeal: A Study in the Relations between Great Britain and Ireland 1841-50 (London, 1965). Other aspects of politics in the period are covered in I. d’Alton, Protestant Society and Politics in Cork 1812-44 (Cork, 1980); H. Senior, Organgeism in Ireland and Britain 1795-1836 (London, 1960); Jacqueline Hill, ‘National Festivals, the State and “Protestant Ascendancy” in Ireland 1790-1829’, IHS, vol. xxv, No. 93 (May 1984) and ‘The Protestant Response to Repeal: The case of the Dublin Working Class’ in F.S.L. Lyons and R.A.J. Hawkins, Ireland under the Union: Varieties of Tension. Essays in Honour of T.W. Moody; R. B. McDowell, Public Opinion and Government Policy in Ireland 1801-46 (London, 1952); D. Kerr, Peel, Priests and Politics: Sir Robert Peel’s Administration and the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland 1841-6 (Oxford, 1982).The only modern account of Young Ireland is R. Davis, The Young Ireland Movement (Dublin, 1987), and original accounts like C. Gavan Duffy’s Young Ireland: A Fragment of Irish History (London, 1880) and Michael Doheny’s The Felon’s Track (1849; reprinted Dublin, 1914) must be handled very carefully indeed. for challenging insights see T. Dunne, ‘Haunted by History: Irish Romantic Writing 1800-1850’ in R. Porter and M. Tich, Romanticism in National Context (Cambridge, 1988). For the formation of a cultural and historical idea of Ireland’s past, see Walter Love, ‘Charles O’Conor of Belanagare and Thomas Leland’s “Philosophical” History of Ireland’; N. Vance, ‘Celts, Carthaginians and Constitutions: Anglo-Irish Literary Relations 1780-1820’, IHS, vol. xxii, No. 87 (March 1981); R. F. Foster, ‘History and the Irish Question’, RHS Trans., fifth ser., vol. xxx (1983); Donal McCartney, ‘The Writing of History in Ireland 1800-1830’, IHS, vol. x, No. 40 (September 1957); and Jeanne Sheehy’s luminous and entertaining The Rediscovery of Ireland’s Past: The Celtic Revival 1830-1930 (London, 1980). Forthcoming work by Clare O’Halloran and Jacqueline Hill will elucidate this area further.

On religious affairs, S. Connolly’s Priests and People in Pre-Famine Ireland 1780-1845 is of great importance; he has also written an excellent pamphlet, Religion and Society in Nineteenth-century Ireland, Studies in Irish Economic and Social History No. 3 (Dundalk, 1985). Also see Oliver MacDonagh, ‘The Politicization of the Irish Catholic Bishops 1800-1850’, Hist. jn., vol. xviii, No. 1 (1975); P. J. Corish, ed., A History of Irish Catholicism, vol. V, parts 2 and 3 (Dublin, 1967); D. Bowen, The Protestant Crusade in Ireland 1800-1870: A Study of Protestant-Catholic Relations between the Act of Union and Disestablishment (Dublin, 1978) - though more than one important postgraduate thesis has since disputed Bowen’s picture of harmonious Catholic-Protestant relations before the 1820s; R. Finley Holmes, Henry Cooke (Belfast, 1981); Peter Brooke, ‘Religion and Secular Thought 1850-75’ in J. C. Beckett, et al., Belfast: The Making of the City (Belfast, 1983); and David Hempton’s two important articles, ‘Methodism in Irish Society 1770-1830’, RHS Trans., fifth ser., vol. xxxvi (1986) and ‘The Methodist Crusade in Ireland’, IHS, vol. xxii, No. 85 (March 198). D. H. Akenson, The Irish Education Experiment: The National System of Education in the Nineteenth Century (London, 1970) is also relevant.

There is a growing literature on the subject of secret societies and rural unrest, though George Cornewall Lewis’s classic On the Local Disturbances in Ireland (London, 1836) remains the indispensable starting-point. C. H. E. Philpin, Nationalism and Popular Protest in Ireland, S. Clark and J. Donnelly, Jr, Irish Peasants: Violence and Political Unrest 1780-1914 and P.J. Corish, Radicals, Rebels and Establishments: Historical Studies XV all contain relevant essays. Also see M. Beames, Peasants and Power: The Whiteboy Movements and Their Control in Pre-Famine Ireland (Brighton, 1983); David Fitzpatrick, ‘Class, Family and Rural Unrest in Nineteenth-century Ireland’ in P.J. Drudy, ed., Irish Studies 2. Ireland: Land, Politics and People (Cambridge, 1982); G. Broeker, Rural Disorder and Police Reform in Ireland 1812-36 (London, 1970); P. O’Farrell, ‘Millennialism, Messianism and Utopianism in Irish History’, Anglo-Irish Studies, vol. ii (1976).

Rural conditions in early nineteenth-century Ireland provoked a flood of contemporary and subsequent comment. Besides the reports of the commissions of inquiry mentioned above, see travellers’ accounts like that of Mr and Mrs S.C. Hall, Ireland: Its Scenery, Character, Etc. (three vols., London 1841-3) and W>M. Thackeray, The Irish Sketchbook (London, 1843); less accessible but more enlightening is the account of someone who actually saw life on the inside of the cabins, Asenath Nicolson, Ireland’s Welcome to the Stranger: Or, Excursions through Ireland in 1844 and 1845 for the Purpose of Personally Investigating the Condition of the Poor (London, 1847). For secondary commentary, many of the works listed above in the eighteenth-century section are relevant, such as the work on Irish population by K. H. Connell, J. Lee, M. Drake and S. Daultrey, D. Dickson and C. Ó Gráda. There are several valuable articles in J.M. Goldstrom and L.A. Clarkson, eds., Irish Population, Economy and Society. Essays in Honour of the LAte K.H. Connell (Oxford, 1981), which has an indispensable section on ‘Demography and Diet’; also see the collections edited by L.M. Cullen and F. Furet, and L. M. Cullen and T. C. Smout, listed at the beginning of this survey. Raymond Crotty’s Irish Agricultural Production: Its Volume and Structure (Cork, 1966) is vigorous, brilliant and iconoclastic. Also see R. D. C. Black’s Economic Thought and the Irish Question 1817-70 (Cambridge, 1970).

J. Donnelly, Jr’s The LAnd and the People of Nineteenth-century Cork: The Rural Economy and the LAnd Question (London, 1975) is the kind of book that should be written for every Irish county. For landlord-tenant relations in general, see M.J. Winstanley, Ireland and the LAnd Question 1800-1922 (London, 1984), a very useful introduction; and for a specific case-study, W.A. Maguire, The Downshire Estates in Ireland 1801-45 (Oxford, 1972). (Works dealing with landlord-tenant relations after the famine are listed later.) For Ulster, see L. Kennedy and P. Ollerenshaw (eds), An Economic History of Ulster 1820-1940 (Manchester, 1985); E.R.R. Green, The Lagan Valley 1800-1850 (London, 1949); W. A. McCutcheon, The Industrial Archaeology of Northern Ireland (Belfast, 1980); W.H. Crawford, ‘Landlord-tenant Relations in Ulster 1609-1820’, IESH, vol. ii (1975) and Domestic Industry in Ireland (Dublin, 1972); also see his essays in the collections edited by L. M. Cullen and T. C. Smout, T. Bartlett and D. Hayton, L. M. Cullen and F. Furet, and D. Roebuck. Other words dealing with Ulster in this period include J.C Beckett, et al., Belfast: The MAking of the City and P. Gibbon, The Origins of Ulster Unionism: The Formation of Popular Protestant Politics and Ideology in Nineteenth-century Ireland (Manchester, 1975), which is stimulating, but has been much contested. Finally J.H. Andrews’s A Paper Landscape: The Ordnance Survey in Nineteenth-century Ireland (Oxford, 1975) is a masterly work, exploring a far wider area than indicated by the title.

The Famine is specifically dealt with in R. D. Edwards and T. D. Williams, The Great Famine (London, 1956) and Joel Mokyr, Why Ireland Starved: A Quantitative and Analytical History of the Irish Economy 1800-1850 (London, 1983); see also the articles discussing Mokyr’s conclusions in IESH, vol. xi (1984). There is much of relevance in J.M. Goldstrom and L. A. Clarkson, Irish Population, Economy and Society. Essays in Honour of the LAte K.H. Connell. A Valuable local study is S. Kierse, The Famine Years in the Parish of Killaloe 1845-51 (Killaloe, 1984); and David Thomson and Moyra McGusty, eds., The Irish Journals of Elizabeth SMith 1840-50 (Oxford, 1980) is full of insight. For social effects, see K.H. Connell, Irish Peasant Society; E. Larkin, ‘The Devotional Revolution in Ireland 1850-75’, AHR, vol. xxvii, No. 3 (June 1972), and The Historical Dimensions of Irish Catholicism (New York, 1981) for afterthoughts; D. W. Miller, ‘Irish Catholicism and the Great Famine’, jn.Soc. Hist., vol. ix, No. 1 (1975); David Fitzpatrick, ‘The Disappearance of the Irish Agricultural Labourer 1841-1912’, IESH, vol. vii (1980).

The subject of emigration is another booming area. Here the vital starting point is David Fitzpatrick, Irish Emigration 1801-1921, Studies in Irish Economic and Social History No. 1 (Dundalk, 1984). Also see C. Ó Gráda, ‘A Note on Nineteenth-century Emigration Statistics’, Population Studies, No. 29 (1975); S.H. Cousens’s articles on regional patterns of emigration over the nineteenth century in Trans. of the Inst. of British Geographers, nos. 28 (1960), 33 (1963) and 38 (1965); and R. E. Kennedy, Jr, The Irish: Emigration, Marriage and Fertility (London, 1973). Irish emigration to America is dealt with exhaustively in Kerby Miller, Emigrants and Exiles: Ireland and the Irish Exodus to North America (Oxford, 1985) - but see the combative approach of D.H. Akenson in Being Had: Historians, Evidence and the Irish in North America (Port Credit, Ontario, 1985) and ‘An Agnostic View of the Historiography of the Irish-Americans’, Labour/Le Travail, No. 14 (1984). The vast extent of Irish-American study is indicated by D. N. Doyle, ‘The Regional Bibliography of Irish America: A Review and an Addendum’, IHS, vol. xxiii, No. 91 (May 1983); samples of traditionalist but important work include L.J. McCaffrey, The Irish Diaspora in America (second edition, Washington, 1984) and A. Schrier, IReland and the American Migration 1850-1900 (Minneapolis, 1951). A useful collection is P.J. Drudy, ed., Irish Studies 4. The Irish in America: Emigration, Assimilation and Impact (Cambridge, 1985). Irish emigration to Britain is only now beginning to receive academic analysis: see M. Hartigan, ed., The History of the Irish in Britain: A Bibliography (London, 1986). Brenda Collins deals with the Irish in Scotland in J.M. Goldstrom and L. A. Clarkson, Irish Population, Economy and Society. Essays in Honour of the Late K.H. Connell; also see Collins’s ‘Proto-industrialization and Pre-Famine Emigration’ in Social History, vol. vii, No. 2 (May 1982). For another view of Irish emigrant activity in Scotland, see Owen Dudley Edwards, Burke and Hare (Edinburgh, 1980). Also see R. Swift and S. Gilley (eds), The Irish in the Victorian City (London, 1985); L.H. Lees, Exiles of Erin: Irish Migrants in Victorian London (Manchester, 1979); L.P. Curtis, Anglo-Saxons and Celts: A Study of Anti-Irish Prejudice in Victorian England (Bridgeport, Conn., 1968) - but see S. Gilley’s article questioning many of his conclusions in the collection edited by R. Swift and S. Gilley, and also G. Tuathaigh’s masterly study of ‘The Irish in Britain: Problems of Integration’, RHS Trans., fifth ser., vol. xxxi (1981), reprinted by R. Swift and S. Gilley.

Of general treatments of Irish history after the Famine, F. S. L. Lyons’s magisterial Ireland since the Famine (London, 1971) dominates the field. It is well partnered by J. Lee’s iconoclastic and stimulating The Modernization of Irish Society 1848-1918 (Dublin, 1973). Nicholas Mansergh’s classic The Irish Question 1840-1921 (third edition, London, 1975) looks at Irish history in the context of British policy and Anglo-Irish relations. The political and social underpinnings of post-Famine Ireland are marvelously prospected in K.T. Hoppen’s masterpiece, Elections, Politics and Society in Ireland 1832-85 (Oxford, 1984). Another pioneering study is Charles Townshend’s Political Violence in Ireland: Government and Resistance since 1848 (Oxford, 1983). Much Fenian historiography is hagiography, but R.V. Comerford’s coruscating The Fenians in Context: Irish Politics and Society 1848-82 (Dublin, 1985) lets in a burst of light. Also see T. W. Moody, ed., The Fenian Movement (Cork and Dublin, 1968); L. Ó Broin, Revolutionary Underground: The Story of the Irish Republican Brotherhood 1858-1924 (Dublin, 1976); B. Mac Giolla Choille, ‘Fenian Documents in the State Paper Office’, IHS. vol. xvi, No. 62 (September 1962); and T. D. Williams, ed., Secret Societies in Ireland (Dublin, 1973). For constitutional politics before Parnell, see D. Thornley, Isaac Butt and Home Rule (London, 1964).

For the background to the land question, James Fintan Lalor’s writings are of great interest; they are edited by L. Fogarty as James Fintan Lalor: Patriot and Political Essayist (Dublin, 1918). The best introduction to landlord-tenant relations in the later nineteenth century is W. E. Vaughan, Landlords and Tenants in Ireland 1848-1904, Studies in Irish Economic and Social History No. 2 (Dundalk, 1984); see also B. Solow’s elegant and incisive study, The Land Question and the Irish Economy 1870-1903 (Cambridge, Mass., 1971); S. Clark, Social Origins of the Irish Land War (Princeton, 1979); C. Ó Gráda, ‘Agricultural Head-rents, Pre-Famine and Post-Famine’, Econ. and Soc. Review, vol. v, No. 3 (April 1974); L. P. Curtis, ‘Incumbered Wealth: Landlord Indebtedness in Post-Famine Ireland’, AHR, vol. lxxxi, No. 2 (April 1980); R. F. Foster, Charles Stewart Parnell: The Man and His Family (Hassocks, 1976); P. Bew, Land and the national Question in Ireland 1858-82 (Dublin, 1980); Donald Jordan, Land and Politics in the West of Ireland: County Mayo 1846-82 (Cambridge, forthcoming, 1989); also Raymond Crotty, Irish Agricultural Production: Its Volume and Structure and J. Donnelly, Jr., The Land and the People of Nineteenth-century Cork: The Rural Economy and the Land Question. There are countless contemporary views of the Land War of the early 1880s; a few of the more illuminating (not always consciously) are B. Becker, Disturbed Ireland: Being the Letters Written during the Winter 1880-81 (London, 1881); S.M. Hussey, Reminiscences of an Irish Land Agent (London, 1904); W. Bence Jones, The Life’s Work in Ireland of a Landlord Who Tried to Do His Duty (London, 1880); Michael Davitt, The Fall of Feudalism in Ireland (London and New York, 1904); and Anna Parnell’s indispensable The Tale of a Great Sham edited with an introduction by Dana Hearne (Dublin, 1986).

For the political crisis of the 1880s see articles in F. S. L. Lyons and R. A .J. Hawkins, IReland under the Union: Varieties of Tension. Essays in Honour of T.W. Moody; Conor Cruise O’Brien, Parnell and His Party 1880-90 (Oxford, 1964);T.W. Moody, Michael Davitt and Irish Revolution 1846-82 (Oxford, 1981); J. Loughlin, Gladstone, Home Rule and the Ulster Question 1882-1893 (Dublin, 1986. The foundations of government policy are explored classically in J. L. Hammond, Gladstone and the Irish Nation (London, 1938) and sceptically in A. B. Cooke and J. R. Vincent, The Governing Passion: Cabinet Government and Party Politics in Britain 1885-6 (Hassocks, 1974) - an iconoclastic tour de force. Also see J.R. Vincent, ‘Gladstone and Ireland’, Proc. Brit. Academy, vol. lxiii (1977). A more traditional view is given in E. D. Steele, ‘Gladstone and Ireland’, IHS, vol. xvii, No. 65 (March 1970). Also see T. Dunne, ‘La Trahison des clercs: British Intellectuals and First Home Rule Crisis’, IHS, vol. xxiii, No. 90 (November 1982). Conservative policy, the subject of L.P. Curtis’s Coercion and Conciliation in Ireland 1880-92: A Study in Constructive Unionism (Princeton, 1963) is forcefully reinterpreted by Andrew Gailey in Ireland and the Death of Kindness: The Experience of Constructive Unionism 1890-1905 (Cork, 1987). The unwritten history of the 1890s and early 1990s is, in fact, just beginning to be tackled - notably by P. Bew in Conflict and Conciliation in Ireland 1890-1910: Parnellites and Radical Agrarians (Oxford, 1987). There are numerous biographies of those active in politics at the time; particularly relevant are F. S. L. Lyons, John Dillon (London, 1968) and Charles Stewart Parnell (London, 1977); T. W. Moody, Michael Davitt and Irish Revolution 1846-82; R.F. Foster, Lord Randolph Churchill: A Political Life (Oxford 1981); J. V. O’Brien, William O’Brien and the Course of Irish Politics 1881-1918 (London, 1976).

Part Four
The sources for twentieth-century Irish history are eclectic and uneven; ironically, much of Irish history after 1922 has to be prospected through British sources because of the restrictive approach taken by Irish governments towards releasing the papers of government departments. For the period following 1919, the Dáil Eireann debates are valuable - note especially the volume covering the Treaty debates, Dáil Eireann Official Report: Debate on the Treaty between Great Britain and Ireland Signed on 6 December 1921 (Dublin, 1922).

Two short invaluable general works are J. A. Murphy, Ireland in the Twentieth Century (Dublin, 1975) and Ronan Fanning, Independent Ireland (Dublin, 1986), the latter of especial value, because it incorporates much of the author’s original research in available official records. Terence Brown’s Ireland: A Social and Cultural History 1922-79 (London, 1981) is a vital guide and Conor Cruise O’Brien, ed., The Shaping of Modern Ireland (London, 1960) contains essays of great insight on the early twentieth century. Many of the works cited in the last section, such as those on the land question by B. Solow, W. E. Vaughan and S. Clark and J. Donnelly, Jr, are also relevant to the social and economic history of Ireland in the early twentieth century. Also see T. West, Horace Plunkett, Co-operation and Politics: An Irish Biography (Gerrard’s Cross, 1986).

Irish urban history is in its infancy, but two important studies of Dublin are Mary Daly, Dublin, The Deposed Capital: A Social and Economic History 1860-1914 (Cork, 1985) and J.V. O’Brien, ‘Dear, Dirty Dublin’: A City in Distress 1899-1916 (London 1982). Labour unrest in the early twentieth century is dealt with in John Gray’s City in Revolt: James LArkin and the Belfast Dock Strike of 1907 (Belfast, 1985); also see H. Patterson, Class Conflict and Sectarianism: The Protestant Working Class and the Belfast Labour Movement 1868-1920 (Belfast, 1980) and A. C. Hepburn, ‘Work, Class and Religion in Belfast 1871-1911’, IESH, vol. x (1983). James Connolly’s Labour in Irish History (Dublin, 1910, much reprinted) is necessary background. Issue No. 4 of Saothar, the journal of the Irish Labour history Society (1978), is a James Larkin number, with several interesting articles; also see E. Larkin, James Larkin: Irish Labour LEader 1876-1947 (London, 1961) and A. Mitchell, Labour in Irish Politics 1890-1930 (Dublin, 1974). The important topic of the Irish feminist movement in this period is nowhere treated adequately; see, in default of anything else, M. Ward, Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish Nationalism (London, 1983).

First-hand accounts of nationalist involvement in the early twentieth century are embarrassing in their number, and require careful decoding; a sample, chosen for their literary quality at least as much as for their factual accuracy, are Desmond Ryan, Remembering Sion (London, 1934), W.B. Yeats, Autobiographies (London, 1955) and Ernie O’Malley’s incomparable On Another Man’s Wound (Tralee, 1979 edition). Three contemporary texts of great influence (retrospectively speaking) are Douglas Hyde, ‘The Necessity for De-Anglicizing Ireland’ in The Revival of Irish Literature: Addresses by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, KCMG, Dr George Sigerson, and Dr Douglas Hyde (London, 1894); D.P. Moran, The Philosophy of Irish Ireland (Dublin, 1904). The same is true of the Collected Works of Patrick H. Pearse (five vols., Dublin, 1920-25), particularly Political Writings and Speeches.

Of secondary works, F.S.L. Lyons’s Culture and Anarchy in Ireland 1890-1939 had set many of the terms of recent interpretations of cultural nationalism; see also Conor Crusie O’Brien, ‘Passion and Cunning: An Essay on the Politics of W. B. Yeats’ in A.N. Jeffares and K.C.W. Cross (editors), In Excited Reverie: A Centenary Tribute to William Butler Yeats 1865-1939 (London, 1965). G.J. Watson, Irish Identity and the Literary Revival: Synge, Yeats, Joyce and O’Casey (London, 1979) is both perceptive and lucid. The marginalization of the Ascendancy is treated in P. Buckland, Irish Unionism. Vol. 1: The Anglo-Irish and the New Ireland 1885-1922 (Dublin, 1973); also see L. P. Curtis, ‘The Anglo-Irish Predicament’ in Twentieth-century Studies 4 (Edinburgh, 1970). For the Gaelic Athletic Association, see W. F. Mandley, The Gaelic Athletic Association and Irish Nationalist Politics 1884-1924 (London and Dublin, 1987).

There are few worthwhile biographies for the period, one glowing exception being R. Dudley Edwards’ Patrick Pearse: The Triumph of Failure (London, 1977), which illuminates far more than its subject; also see Brian Inglis, Roger Casement (London, 1973). For the pre-war political crisis, see P. Jalland, The Liberals and Ireland: The Ulster Question in British Politics to 1914 (Brighton, 1980); Ronan Fanning, ‘The Irish Policy of Asquith’s Government and the Cabinet Crisis of 1910’ in Art Cosgrove and Donal McCartney, Studies in Irish History Presented to R. Dudley Edwards; Richard Murphy, ‘Faction and the Home Rule Crisis 1912-14’ in History, vol. lxxi, No. 232 (June 1986). A.T.Q. Stewart’s The Ulster Crisis (London, 1967) is a work of considerable panache. A topic tacitly ignored by much of traditional Irish historiography is broached in David Fitzpatrick (editor), Ireland and the First World War (Trinity History Workshop, Dublin, 1986).

The tangled background to 1916 is explored in F. X. Martin, ‘1916: Myth, Fact and Mystery’, Stud, Hib., vol. vii (1967); see also his edition of Eoin MacNeill’s absorbing memoir in IHS, vol. xii, No. 47 (March 1961). Much the best general treatment is in Charles Townshend, Political Violence in Ireland. For vivid first-hand accounts, see Desmond Ryan, The Rising (Dublin, 1949) and James Stephens, The Insurrection in Dublin (1916); reprinted Gerrard’s Cross, 1978). The politics of the subsequent period are clarified by Michael Laffan in ‘The Unification of Sinn Féin in 1917’, IHS, vol. xvii, No. 67 (March 1971); A.T. Ward, ‘Lloyd George and the 1918 Irish Conscription Crisis’, Hist. Jn., vol. xvii, No. 1 (March 1974); Tom Garvin, The Evolution of Irish Nationalist Politics is also of great value for this era. T. D. Williams (editor), The Irish Struggle 1916-26 (London, 1966) contains some useful essays. David Fitzpatrick’s Politics and Irish Life 1913-1921: Provincial Experience of War and Revolution (Dublin, 1977) is a pioneering masterpiece. A more modest local study is O. Coogan, Politics and War in Meath 1913-23 (Dublin, 1983). General patterns of affiliation are treated in E. Rumpf and A. C. Hepburn, Nationalism and Socialism in Twentieth-century Ireland (Liverpool, 1977) and David Fitzpatrick, ‘The Geography of Irish Nationalism 1910-1921’, P & P, No. 78 (February 1978). Charles Townshend’s The British Campaign in IReland 1919-21: The Development of Political and Military Policies (Oxford, 1975) is impressively lucid and dispassionate; also see his article ‘The Irish Republican Army and the Development of Guerrilla Warfare 1916-21’, EHR vol. xciv, No. 371 (April 1979). For labour unrest at this time, see David Fitzpatrick, ‘Strikes in Ireland 1914-21’, Saothar, No. 6 (1980); E. O’Connor, ‘Agrarian Unrest and the LAbour Movement in County Waterford 1917-23’, ibid.; A. Mitchell, Labour in Irish Politics 1890-1930; C.D. Greaves, Liam Mellowes and the Irish Revolution (London, 1971). Ulster is dealt with in P. Buckland, Irish Unionism, Vol. II: Ulster Unionism and the Origins of Northern Ireland 1886-1992 (Dublin, 1973); M. Laffan, The Partition of Ireland 1911-25 (Dundalk, 1983); John McColgan, British Policy and the Irish Administration 1920-22 (London, 1983). David Miller, Queen’s Rebels: Ulster Loyalism in Historical Perspective (Dublin, 1978) is one of the best studies of the topic. D. George Boyce’s English Men and Irish Troubles: British Public Opinion and the Making of Irish Policy (London, 1972) is enlightening about a difficult subject.

Independent Ireland and its establishment are dealt with in J.M. Curran, The Birth of the Irish Free State 1921-3 (University, Alabama, 1980); T. Jones, Whitehall Diary Vol. III: Ireland, ed. K. Middlemas (London, 1971); Michael Gallagher, ‘The Pact General Election of 1922’, IHS, vol. xxi, No. 84 (September 1979); Eoin Neeson, The Civil War in Ireland 1921-3 (Cork, 1966). Seán Cronin (editor), The McGarrity Papers: Revelations of the Irish Revolutionary Movement in Ireland and America 1900-1940 (Tralee, 1972) contains interesting nuggets, especially regarding de Valera’s mental processes. The same complex subject is beautifully dissected in John Bowman. De Valera and the Ulster Question 1917-73 (Oxford, 1982). Biographies of de Valera are, so far, disappointing, though Deirdre McMahon’s work is eagerly awaited. Maurice Moynihan (ed) Speeches and Statements by Eamon de Valera 1917-73 (Dublin, 1980) is an essential source.

Free State politics are dealt with in B. Farrell, The Founding of Dáil Eireann: Parliament and Nation-Building (Dublin, 1971) and Jeffrey Prager, Building Democracy in Ireland: Political Order and Cultural Integration in a NEwly Independent Nation (Cambridge, 1986). The Irish political system is delineated by Basil Chubb in The Government and Politics of Ireland (London, 1971); also see R.K. Carty, Party and Parish Pump: Electoral Politics in Ireland (Waterloo, Ontario, 1981) and Time Garvin, ‘The Destiny of the Soldiers: Tradition and Modernity in the Politics of de Valera’s Ireland’, Pol. Studies, vol. xxvi, No. 3 (1978). More visceral issues are addressed in M.G. Valuilis, Almost a Rebellion: The Irish Army Mutiny of 1924 (Cork, 1985) and D. Keogh, The Vatican, The Bishops and Irish Politics 1919-39 (Cambridge, 1986). Politics outside the establishment during the 1920s and 1930s may be followed in Tim Pat Coogan, The IRA (second edition, London, 1980) and the later chapters of Seán Cronin, Irish Nationalism: A History of Its Roots and Ideology (Dublin, 1980) - useful as a first-hand account of the modern period, but not reliable as a general treatment. Also see J. Bowyer Bell, The Secret Army: The IRA 1916-79 (Dublin, 1979); M. Laffan, ‘Violence and Terror in Twentieth-century Ireland: IRB and IRA’ in W. J. Mommsen and G. Hirschfeld, eds., Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-century Europe (London, 1982); M. Manning, The Blueshirts (Dublin, 1970).

Ronan Fanning’s The Irish Department of Finance 1922-58 (IPA, Dublin, 1978) is essential reading, and casts a far wider net than its title implies; it is studded with lengthy and though-provoking quotations from otherwise inaccessible government sources. J. P. O’Carroll and J. A. Murphy, eds., De Valera and His Times: Political Development in the Republic of Ireland (Cork, 1983) has some useful essays. Important social and cultural issues are addressed in J. Whyte, Church State in Modern Ireland 1923-79 (second edition, London, 1980); E.B. Titley, Church, State and the Control of Schooling in Ireland 1900-1944 (Dublin, 1983); M. O’Callaghan, ‘Language, Nationality and Cultural Identity in the Irish Free State 1922-7: The Irish Statesman and the Catholic Bulletin Reappraised’, IHS, vol. xxiv, No. 94 (November 1984). Conrad Arensberg’s The Irish Countryman: An Anthropological Study (London, 1937) is necessary reading. Also useful are Seán Glynn, ‘Irish Immigration to Britain 1911-51: Patterns and Policy’, IESH, vol. viii (1981) and T. K. Daniel, ‘Griffith on His Noble Head: The Determinants of Cumann na nGaedheal Economic Policy 1922-32’, IESH, vol. iii (1976). D.S. Johnson, The Inter-war Economy in Ireland, Studies in Irish Economic and Social History No. 4 (Dundalk, 1985) is an excellent introduction, with a very useful bibliography; the definitive work on the subject is still J. Meenan, The Irish Economy since 1922 (Liverpool, 1970). See also Raymond Crotty, Irish Agricultural Production: Its Volume and Structure and F. Ó Tuathaigh, ‘The Land Question, Politics and Irish Society 1922-60’ in P. J. Drudy, Irish Studies 2: Ireland: Land, Politics and People. Anglo-Irish relations in the 1920s are definitively surveyed in D.W. Harkness, The Restless Dominion: The Irish Free State in the British Commonwealth of Nations 1921-31 (London, 1969); for the 1930s, Deirdre McMahon’s Republicans and Imperialists: Anglo-Irish Relations in the 1930s (London, 1984) is invaluable.

Ireland’s wartime experience has attracted much second-rate writing but has also inspired at least one first-rate book: Robert Fish’s massive In Time of War: Ireland Ulster and the Price of Neutrality 1939-45 (London, 1983). Foreign policy is definitively treated in Patrick Keatinge, A Place Among the Nations: Issues of Irish Foreign Policy (Dublin, 1978).

Northern Ireland since 1920 is acerbically surveyed in P. Buckland, The Factory of Grievances: Devolved Government in Northern Ireland 1921-39 (Dublin, 1979); also see D. W. Harkness, Northern Ireland since 1920 (Dublin, 1983) and P. Bew and H. Patterson, The State in Northern Ireland 1921-72: Political Forces and Social Classes (Manchester, 1971). Michael Farrell’s Arming the Protestants: The Formation of the Ulster Special Constabulary and the Royal Ulster Constabulary 1920-27 (London, 1983) is engagé but illuminating. A particularly useful article is J. Whyte’s ‘How Much Discrimination was there under the Unionist Regime, 1921-68?’ in T. Gallagher and J. O’Connell, eds., Religion, Education and Employment: Aspects of Equal Opportunity in Northern Ireland (Belfast, 1983). Graham Walker’s The Politics of Frustration: Harry Midgley and the Failure of Labour in Northern Ireland (Manchester, 1985) is an absorbing study of a special case. For the roots of the crisis since 1968, Rosemary Harris’s Prejudice and Tolerance in Northern Ireland: A Study of Neighbours and ‘Strangers’ in a Border Community (Manchester, 1972) is one pioneering study, and R. Rose, Governing without Consensus: An Irish Perspective (London, 1971) another. Articles about Northern Ireland since then are too numerous to list; for a useful bibliography, see R. Rose, ‘Ulster Politics: A Select Bibliography of Political Discord’, Pol. Studies, vol. xx (1972); also J. Whyte, ‘Interpretations of the Northern Ireland Problem: An Appraisal’, Econ. and Social Review, vol. ix, No. 4 (1978). Among recent works, Steve Bruce, God Save Ulster: The Religion and Politics of Paisleyism (Oxford, 1986) is a useful and detached study of an underrated phenomenon. Clare O’Halloran, Partition and the Limits of Irish Nationalism: An Ideology under stress (Dublin, 1987) trenchantly analyses attitudes in the Republic. P. Bishop and E. Mallie, The Provisional IRA (London, 1987) elucidates the IRA split of the early 1970s.

There are useful essays about post-war Ireland in J. Lee, ed., Ireland 1945-70 (Dublin, 1979) and Frank Litton, ed., Unequal Achievement: The Irish Experience 1957-82 (Dublin: IPA 1982). P. Bew and H. Patterson, Sean Lemass and the MAking of Modern Ireland 1945-66 (Dublin, 1982) questions some received ideas. Finally, a few works of autobiography, memoir and polemic that illuminate aspects of modern Ireland: Seán O’Faolain, The Irish (1947; revised edition, 1980); Francis Stuart, Black List, Section H (London, 1975); Peadar O’Donnell, There Will Be Another Day (Dublin, 1963); C. S. Andrews, Dublin Made Me and Man of No Property (Dublin and Cork, 1979-82); John Healy, The Death of an Irish Town (Cork, 1968); Dervla Murphy, A Place Apart (London, 1978); Hubert Butler, Escape from the Anthill (Mullingar, 1985); Noel Browne, Against the Tide (Dublin, 1986). Like the rest of this guide, these represent a personal choice, made with difficulty from a bewildering range of material.

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