Declan Kiberd, Inventing Ireland: The Literature of the Modern Nation (London: Jonathan Cape 1995), 719pp. [Footnotes; no bibliography]

INTRODUCTION
1. Benedict Anderson, “Exodus ”, Critical Inquiry, Vol. 20, No. 2, Winter 1994, 316.
2. Ibid., 319.
3. Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in Postcolonial Literatures, London 1989, 33.
4. On the Janus-faced nature of nationalism in the “developing ” world, see three brilliant recent interventions: Partha Chatterjee, Nationalist Thought and the Glonial World: A Derivative Discourse, London 1986; Kwame Anthony Appiah, In My Fathers House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture, London 1993; and Basil Davidson, The Black Mans Burfikn: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State, London 1992. The increasing influence of African (and Indian) analyses on recent Irish cultural debates may be measured by reading books as different as Desmond Fennell’s Heresy: The Batte of Ideas in Modern Ireland, Belfast 1993 and Liz Curtis, The Cause of Ireland, London 1995.

ONE: A NEW ENGLAND CALLED IRELAND?
1. See Declan Kiberd, “The Fall of the Stage Irishman;’, The Genres of the Irish Literary Revival, ed. R Schleifer, Norman, Oklahoma 1979, 39-60 where this argument was first elaborated.
2. Edmund Spenser, “A View of the Present State of Ireland ” (1596), The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, 1, Derry 1991, 183ff.
3. “An Siogai Romhanach ”, Five Seventeenth Century Political Poems, ed. C. O’Rahilly, Dublin 1952, 29.
4. Spenser, ibid., 191.
5. See Piaras Beaslaoi, Eigse NuaGhaedhilge 1, Dublin n.d., 64.
6. Philip Edwards, Threshold of a Nation: A Study in English and Irish Drama, Cambridge 1979, 79.
7. Act 3, scene 2, lines 120-4. Touchiness on matters of national pride was not confined to the Irish. After the disappointments of the Earl of Essex’s campaign in Ireland, this passage may have been censored on the Elizabethan stage: certainly it does not exist in the 1600 Quarto. By July 1599 the open discussion of Irish affairs was itself a serious offence: already Ireland was turning into the official English Unconscious. On this see Janet Clare, Art Made Tongue-Tied by Authority: Elizabeth and Jacobean Dramatic Censorship, Manchester 1990, 71-2.
8. Quoted by Edwards, 79.
9. Seathrun Ceitinn (Geoffrey Keating), Foras Feasa ar Eirinn 1, ed. David Comyn, London 1902, 76.
10. Ibid., 30.
11. See Andrew Carpenter, “Double Vision in Anglo-Irish Literature ”, Place, Personaliy and the Irish Writer, ed. Carpenter, Gerrards Cross 1977, 182-3.
12. See Edmund Burke, Irish Affairs, London 1988 (first published 1881).
13. Edmund Burke, Works, Boston 1869, Vol. 10, 217.
14. Burke, Works, Vol. 2, 222.
15. Burke, Correspondence, ed. T. Copeland, Cambridge Mass. 1958, Vol. 5, 255.
16. Burke, Works, Vol. 2, 195.
17. Burke, Works, Vol. 12, 23-4.
18. Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France in Works, Vol. 2, 320.
19. Burke, Works, Vol. 2, 205.
20. Burke, Works, Vol. 5, 225.
21. Burke, Works, Vol . 5, 148.
22. Conor Cruise O’Brien, introduction to Refiections on the Revolution in France, Harmondsworth 1969, 42-9.
23. Burke, Grrespondence, Vol. 1, 202.
24. Standish O’Grady, Selected Essays and Passages, Dublin 1918, 180ff.

IRELAND: ENGLAND’S UNCONSCIOUS?
1. John Keats, Letters, selected by Frederick Page, London 1954, 149.
2. Matthew Arnold, The Study of Celtic Literature, London 1891, 115.
3. Ibid., 104.
4. Shaemas O’Sheel, Jealous of the Dead Leaves, New York 1928.
5. Arnold, ibid., 92.

TWO: OSCAR WILDE - THE ARTIST AS IRISHMAN
1. Henry Craik, letter to John Forster, Forster MS 48.E.25, British Library.
2. W. B. Yeats, Autobiographies, London 1955, 138.
3. Ibid., 138.
4. Ibid., 137.
5. Richard Ellmann, Oscar Wilde, Harmondsworth 1987, 11-12.
6. Oscar Wilde, Plays, Harmondsworth 1968, 267.
7. Oscar Wilde, Complete Works, Glasgow 1994, 770.
8. Wilde, Plays, 51.
9. Quoted by H. Montgomery Hyde, Oscar Wilde, London 1976, 31.
10. Oscar Wilde, Selected Letters, ed. R. Hart-Davis, Oxford 1979, 20-1.
11. Quoted Hyde, 232.
12. Wilde, Selected Letters, 100.
13. Quoted by Hyde, 85.
14. Quoted by Richard Ellmann, James Joyce, Oxford 1959, 226.
15. Richard Ellmann, Eminent Domain, Oxford 1967, 12-13.
16. Wilde, Selected Letters, 197.
17. See Hyde, 38ff.
18. Oscar Wilde, The Artist as Critic, ed. R. Ellmann, London 1970, 389.
19. Ibid., 136-40.
20. On this see Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity; Oxford 1972, 11822.
21. Wilde, Plays, 288.
22. Ibid., 290.
23. James Laver, The Concise History of Costume and Fashions, New York 1969, 182.
24. Wilde, Plays, 310.
25. On Wilde’s critique of determinism, see Christopher Nassaar, Into the Demon Universe, New Haven 1974, 135-7.
26. Quoted by Rodney Shewan, Oscar Wilde: Art and Egotism, London 1977, 193.
27. Wilde, Plays, 263.
28. Ibid., 277.
29. See L. P. Curtis Jnr., Anglo-Saxons and Celts: A Study of Anti-Irish Prejudice in Victorian England, Bridgeport 1968.
30. Wilde, Selected Letters, 50.
31. Otto Rank, The Double: A Psychoanalytic Study, New York 1971.
32. Wilde, Plays, 262.
33. Eric Stern, review of Rank’s The Double, Die Literatur, XXIX, 1926-7, 555.
34. Rank, The Double, 48ff.
35. Wilde, Plays, 284.
36 Quoted by Harry Tucker, introduction, Rank, The Double, xvi.
37. G. W. F. Hegel, The Phenomenology of Mind, London 1966, 229-40.
38. Ashis Nandy, The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self Under Colonialism, Bombay 1983, 7-8.
39. Ibid., 79-113.
40. Ibid., 11.
41. Wilde, The Artist as Critic, 403.
42. Quoted by R. K. R. Thornton, The Decadant Dilemma, London 1983.
43. Quoted by H. Kingsmill-Moore, Reminiscences and Reflections, London 1930, 45.
44. Nandy, 32-5.
45. Almy, “New Views of Mr. O. W. ”, Theatre, London 1894, 124.
46. Wilde, Plays, 268.
47. Ibid., 268.
48. Quoted Ellmann, Oscar Wilde, 20.
49. Quoted by Hyde, 71.
50. Wilde, Selected Letters, 29.
51. Ellmann, Oscar Wilde, 186.
52. Quoted by Tom Nairn, The Enchanted Glass: Britain and its Monarehy, London 1988, 328
53. Quoted ibid., 332.
54. Ibid., 340.
55. Wilde, Selected Letters, 112.
56. Wilde, The Artist as Critic, 396.
57. Ibid., 373.
58. Wilde, The Artist as Critic, 405.
59. Jorge Luis Borges, Labyrinths, Harmondsworth 1970, 216.
60. George Russell, Letters from AE, ed. Alan Denson, London 1961, 20.
61. Wilde, The Artist as Critic, 130.
62. Quoted by Ellmann, 186.
63. Wilde. The Artist as Critic. 386.

THREE: JOHN BULL’S OTHER ISLANDER - BERNARD SHAW
1. G. B. Shaw, John Bull’s Other Island, in The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, Vol. 2, Derry 1991, 438.
2. G. B. Shaw, The Matter with Ireland, ed. David H. Greene and Dan H. Laurence, London 1962, 33.
3. Shaw, John Bull’s Other Island, 432.
4. Ibid., 429.
5. Ibid., 427.
6. Ibid., 426.
7. Ibid., 459.
8. Ibid., 440.
9. Ibid., 436.
10. Ibid., 433.
11. Shaw, Matter, 16.
12. On this see Alfred J. Tureo Jnr, Shaws Moral Vision: The Self and Salvation, Ithaca 1976, 178
13. Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, trans. by Constance Farrington, Harmondsworth 1967, 124.
14. Shaw, John Bulls Other Island, 439.
15. Ibid., 470-1.
16. Ibid., 460.
17. Ibid., 431.
18. Ibid., 425.
19. Ibid., 467.
20. Ibid., 467.
21. Ibid., 469.
22. Ibid., 436.
23. Ibid., 467.
24. Shaw, Matter, 99.
25. Shaw, John Bull’s Other Island, 461.
26. Ibid., 471.
27. Shaw, Matter, 35.
28. Ibid., 149.
29. Ibid., 252

FOUR: TRAGEDIES OF MANNERS - SOMERVILLE AND ROSS
1. Quoted by Gifford Lewis, Somerville and Ross: The World of The Irish RM, Harmondsworth 1987, 165.
2. Lewis, ibid., 9.
3. E. Oe. Somerville and Martin Ross, The Real Charlotte, London 1977, 11.
4. Quoted by Gifford Lewis, 104.
5. Gifford Lewis ed., Selected Letters of Somerville and Ross London 1989, 252.
6. E. Oe. Somerville, Irish Memories, Chapter 8.
7. Quoted by Gifford Lewis, Somerville and Ross, 127.
8. Charles Lever, Tom Burke of Ours. Dublin 1844, 71.
9. Somerville and Ross, The Real Charlotte, 67.
10. Ibid., 117.
11. Ibid., 45.
12. Ibid., 79.
13. Ibid., 124.
14. Somerville, Irisk Memorics, Chapter 20.
15. Quoted by Hilary Robinson, Somerville and Ross: A Critical Appreciation, Dublin 1980, 87.
16. Lewis, Somerville and Ross, 196.
17. Quoted by Lewis, ibid., 134.
18. The phrase is D. W. Harding’s from the essay of that title in Scrutiny VIII (1940), 346-62.
19. Quoted by Robinson, 88.
20. Quoted ibid., 88.
21. John Cronin, “The Real Charlotte ”, The Anglo-Irish Novel, Belfast 1980, 146.
22. Somerville and Ross, The Real Charlotte, 327.
23. Ibid., 42.
24. C. S. Lewis, “A Note on Jane Austen ”, Jane Austen: A ColEction of Critical Essays, ed. Ian Watt, New Jersey 1963, 33.
25. Somerville and Ross, The Real Charlottc, 223.
26. Ibid., 344.
27. Ibid., 198.
28. Ibid., 338.
29. Ibid., 198.
30. Ibid., 338.
31. Ibid., 80.
32. Ibid., 178.
33. Ibid., 24.
34. Lewis, Somerville and Ross, 44.
35. Quoted ibid., 195.
36. Somerville and Ross, The Real Charlotte, 50-1.
37. Ibid., 245.

FIVE: LADY GREGORY AND THE EMPIRE BOYS
1. Augusta Gregory, Seventy Years 1852-1922, ed. Colin Smythe, Gerrards Cross 1974, 1.
2. Gregory, Holograph Diary, Vol. 12, 11 April 1896, Berg Collection, New York.
3. Mary Lou Kohfeldt Stevenson, “The Cloud of Witnesses ”, Lady Gregory: Fifty Years After, eds. Ann Saddlemyer and Colin Smythe, Gerrards Cross 1987, 60.
4. Holograph Diary, Vol. 2, Berg.
5. George Moore, Vale, New York 1920, 184.
6. See Lady Gregory: Fifty Years After, 197 and 195.
7. Brian Jenkins, “The Marriage ”, ibid., 79.
8. Gregory, Seventy Years, 34.
9. Ibid., 35.
10. Ibid., 36.
11. Ibid., 38.
12. Ibid., 59, 35.
13. Mary Lou Kohfeldt, Lady Gregory: The Woman Bchind the Irish Renaissance, London 1985, 62-3.
14. Seventy Years, 44.
15. Ibid., 49.
16. Ibid., 54.
17. Kohfeldt, Lady Gregory, 65.
18. Augusta Gregory, “A Woman’s Sonnets ”, Lady Gregory: Fifty Years After, 105.
19. Kohfeldt, Lady Gregory, 75.
20. Quoted ibid., 75, 80.
21. Quoted ibid., 79.
22. Quoted ibid., 82-3.
23. Seventy Years, 95-6.
24. “A Woman’s Sonnets ”, 106.
25. Augusta Gregory, “Dervorgilla ”, Selected Plays, Gerrards Cross 1983, 155.
26. Ibid., 156.
27. Ibid., 158-9.
28. Ibid., 161.
29. The lines are by Aogan Ó Rathaille, from “Bhailintin Brun ”.
30. Selected Plays, 165.
31. Ibid., 166.
32. Ibid., 168.
33. Ibid., 169.
34. W. B. Yeats, Memoirs, ed. D. Donoghue, London 1972, 190.
35. Quoted by Kohfeldt, Lady Gregory, 213.
36. Augusta Gregory, “Grania ”, Selected Plays, 189.
37. Seventy Years, 91.
38. Selected Plays, 190.
39. Ibid., 197.
40. Ibid., 187.
41. Ibid., 205.
42. Ibid., 210.
43. Ibid., 212.
44. Ibid., 214.
45. Ibid., 213.

YEATS: INTERCHAPTER
1. Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Selected Correspondence 1846-95, London 1934, 92, 94.
2. John Mitchel, Jail Journal, Dublin 1913, 357.

SIX: CHILDHOOD AND IRELAND
1. G. K. Chesterton, The Autobiography of G. K Chesterton, New York 1936, 139.
2. W. M. Murphy, Prodigal Father: The Life of John Butbr Yeats, Ithaca 1978, 161.
3. W. B. Yeats, Autobiographies, London 1955, 31.
4. Ibid., 49.
5. Ibid., 27.
6. W. B. Yeats, Collected Poems, London 1950, 233.
7. W. B. Yeats, Collected Plays London 1952, 55.
8. Peter Coveney, The Image of Childhood, Harmondsworth 1967, 193.
9. F. Marryat, Masterman Ready, London 1878, 140.
10. Yeats,Autobiographies, 11.
11. Quoted Prodigal Father, 87.
12. Yeats, Collected Poems, 266.
13. Ibid., 340.
14. Yeats, Autobiographies, 5.
15. Letter to J. P. Fitzgerald, April 1947; quoted by Michael Holroyd, “GBS and Ireland ”, Sewanee Review LXXXIV, No. 1, Winter 1976, 46.
16. Yeats, Autobiographies, 35.
17. Ibid., 3.
18. Yeats, Collected Poems, 136-7.
19. Yeats, Autobiographies, 280.
20. Yeats, Collected Poems, 199.
21. Ibid., 347.
22. Ibid., 381.
23. Yeats, Autobiographies, 47.
24. Ibid., 461.
25. Yeats, Collected Poems, 392.
26. Yeats, Autobiographies, 106.
27. Yeats, Collected Poems, 113.
28. Quoted in Prodigal Father, 446.
29. Allan Wade ed., Letters of W. B. Yeats, London 1954, 63.
30. Yeats, Autobiographies, 305.
31. Yeats, Collected Poems, 21.
32. Ibid., 204.
33. Ibid., 205.

SEVEN: THE NATIONAL LONGING FOR FORM
1. William Henry Curran, The Life of John Philpott Curran, ed. R. Shelton Mackenzie, Chicago 1882, 523.
2. Patrick O’Farrell, Irelands English Question: Anglo-Irish Relations 1536 1970, New York 1971, 14.
3. W. B. Yeats, Collected Poems,
4. Ibid., 241.
5. Matthew Arnold, The Study of Celtic Literature, 144.
6. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, Kafka: Toward a Minor Literature, Minneapolis 1986, 28.
7. Chinua Adhebe, Hopes and Impediments, London 1988, 56.
8. Oscar Wilde, The Artist as Critic, 300.
9. Yeats, Collected Poems, 57.
10. Achebe, Hopes, 43.
11. Yeats, Autobiographies, 515.
12. Ibid., 515.
13. Ibid., 531.
14. Ibid., 244.
15. Ibid., 473.
16. Ibid., 438.
17. Ibid., 437.
18. Ibid., 93.
19. Ibid., 485.
20. W. B. Yeats, Anima Mundi, 347-8.
21. Yeats, Autobiographies, 457.
22. Ibid., 58.
23. Ibid., 166.
24. Ibid., 166.
25. Ibid., 273.
26. Ibid., 194, 254.
27. Deleuze and Guattari, Kafka, 17.
28. Yeats, Autobiographies, 263.
29. Ibid., 321.
30. Ibid., 461.
31. Ibid., 476.
32. Ibid., 463.
33. Ibid., 493.
34. W. B. Yeats, “First Principles ”, Samhain, December 1904, 20.
35. Walt Whitman, preface to Leaves of Grass, The Portable Walt Whitman, ed. Mark van Doren, New York 1969, 56.
36. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, December 1904, 20.
37. On this see Louis MacNeice, The Poetry of W. B. Yeats, London 1967, 41ff. Biographical sourees for Whitman here indude Justin Kaplan, Walt Whitman: A Life, New York 1980; and Paul Zweig, Walt Whitman: The Making of the Poet, New York 1984.

RETURN TO THE SOURCE? INTERCHAPTER
1. P. H. Pearse, “About Literature ”, An Claidheamh Soluis, 26 May 1906, 6.
2. J. M. Synge, Manuscripts, Trinity College Dublin, Ms 4387, 14ff.

EIGHT: DEANGLICIZATION
1. W. B. Yeats, Ideas of Good and Evil, London 1903, 337.
2. W. J. O’Neill Daunt, Personal Recollection of the late Daniel O’Gnnell, London 1848, 14-15.
3. Maureen Wall, “The Decline of the Irish Language ”, A View of the Irish Language, ed. Brian Ó Cuiv, Dublin 1969, 86.
4. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, London 1983, 122.
5. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, October 1901, 9.
6. Harold Bloom, Yeats, New York 1970, 87.
7. W. B. Yeats, Uncollected Prose, Vol. 1, ed. J. P. Frayne, London 1970, 361.
8. J. M. Synge, “National Drama: A Farce ”, Plays 1, ed. Ann Saddlemyer, Oxford 1968, 221-2.
9. Quoted by Diarmuid Coffey, Douglas Hyde: President of Ireland, Dublin 1938, 18.
10. On ascendancy attitudes to Irish, see Janet Egleson Dunleavy and Gareth W. Dunleavy, Douglas Hyde: A Maker of Modern Ireland, Berkeley 1991, 1-136.
11. George Moore. Hail and Farewell, ed. R. Cave, Gerrards Cross 1976, 238.
12. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, 1905, 5-6.
13. W. B. Yeats, postscript, Ideals in Ireland, ed. Lady Gregory, London 1901. See also Essays and Controversies 10.
14. Ibid., 38.
15. Eric Hobsbawn and Terence Ranger eds., The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge 1983, 263-81.
16. Douglas Hyde, “The Necessity for Deanglicizing Ireland ”, The Revival of Irish Literature, London 1894, 120.
17. W. B. Yeats, Essays and Introductions, London 1961, 248.
28. James Joyce, Stephen Hero, London 1977, 52.
19. Hyde, “Necessity ”, 119.
20. D. P. Moran, “The Battle of Two Civilizations ”, Ideals in Ireland, 28, 30.
21. Ibid., 36.
22. Hyde, ”Necessity ”, 123, 129.
23. Quoted by David Greene, “The Founding of the Gaelic League ”, The Gaelic League Idea, ed. Sean Ó Tuama, Cork 1972, 10.
24. Hyde, ”Necessity ”, 129, 128.
25. Ideals in Ireland, 55.
26. John Berger, About Looking, London 1980, 35.
27. Hyde, ”Necessity ”, 138, 159.
28. W. B. Yeats, “The Literary Movement in Ireland ”, Ideals in Ireland, 8590.
29. Quoted by Tomas Ó Fiaich, “The Great Controversy ”, The Gaelic League Idea, 67. This is the best account and I rely on it accordingly.
30. Ibid., 68.
31. Augusta Gregory, Scventy Years 359
32. Edward Martyn, Beltaine, No. 2, February 1900.
33. See Declan Kiberd, Synge and the Irish Language, London 1993, 22a5.
34. Thomas Babington Macaulay, “Indian Education ”, 2 February 1835 minute: in Prose and Poetry, ed. G. M. Young, Cambridge, Mass. 1967, 729.
35. Stephen Gwynn, Today and Tomorrow in Ireland, Dublin and London 1903, 59.
36. Kevin B. Nowlan, “The Gaelic League and Other National Movements ”, The Gaelic League Idea, 45.
37. Letter from J. O. Hannay to Hyde, 15 April 1907; Tadhg MeGlinchey papers.
38. Nowlan quotes this, The Gaelic League Idea, 47.
39. Sean O’Casey, Drums Under the Windows, London 1945, 73.
40. Caoimhghin Ó Goilidhe ed., Datnta Ardteastvis, Dublin 1967, 8.
41. Sean de Freine, The Great Silence, Dublin 1965, 108.
42. Eric Hobsbawm, “Inventing Traditions ”, The Invention of Tradition, 1522.
43. Quoted in The United Irishman, 22 June 1901.
44. Robert Kee, The Green Flag London 1972, 432.
45. Jarnes Joyce, Dubliners, Harmondsworth 1992, 135.
46. Ruth Dudley Edwards, Patrick Pearse: The Triumph of Failure, London 1979, 178 (The Coming Revolution), 229 (From a Hermitage).
47. Quoted by Myles Dillon, “Douglas Hyde ”, The Shaping of Modern Ireland, ed. Conor Cruise O’Brien, London 1960, 59.
48. Quoted by Lady Gregory, Seventy Years, 417.
49. George Moore, Hail and Farewell, 587.
50. Michael Collins, The Path to Freedom, Dublin 1922. For a finely detailed study of the links between language revival and creative expression see Philip O’Leary, The Prose Literature of the Gaelic Revival 1881-1921, Pennsylvania 1994. Similar studies of poetry, sport, political discourse, and philosophy would in all likelihood yield equally rich results to researehers possessed of O’Leary’s imaginative daring and scholarly scruple.

NINE: NATIONALITY OR COSMOPOLITANISM?
1. W. B. Yeats, Uncollected Prose Vol. 1, 255.
2. George Moore, “Literature and the Irish Language ”, Ideals in Ireland, 47.
3. D. P. Moran, The Philosophy of Irish Ireland, Dublin 1905, 37ff.
4. Stopford A. Brooke, The Need and Use of Getting Irish Literature into the English Tongue, London 1893, 65.
5. John Eglinton, in Literary Ideals in Ireland (Eglinton et al.), London 1899, 11.
6. George Russell, ibid., 81-2.
7. George Russell, Thoughts for a Convention, Dublin and London 1917, 7.
8. Littrary Ideals in Ireland, 86.
9. John Eglinton, Bards and Saints, Dublin 1906, 11.
10. John Eglinton, “A Word for Anglo-Irish Literature ”, United Irishman, 22 March 1902.
11. Quoted by Moore, Hail and Farewell, 166; Eglinton, Bards and Saints, 12, 7.
12. United Irishman, 31 March 1902.
13. John Eglinton, Irish Literary Portrvits, 26.
14. United Irishman, 8 February 1902.
15. A. P. Thornton, The Imperial Idea and Its Enemies, London 1959, 210-11.
16. E. A. Boyd, Appreciations and Depreciations, Dublin 1918, 152.
17. Ibid., 157.
18. George Eliot, Middlemarch, Harmondsworth 1965, 110.
19. D. H. Lawrence, Women in Love, Harmondsworth 1960, 444.
20. Quoted by Hyde, Oscar Wilde, 506.
21. W. B. Yeats, Plays and Controversies, 197-8.
22. J. M. Synge, Prose, ed. Alan Price, Oxford 1968, 400.
23. D. P. Moran, The Leader, 2 November 1901.
24. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, October 1902, 8.
25. Thomas MacDonagh, Literature in Ireland, Dublin 1916, 47-8.
26. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, October 1902, 9.
27. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, October 1903, 8.
28. Frantz Fanon, A Dying Colonialism, Harmondsworth 1970, 73.
29. Salman Rushdie, Imaginary Homelands, London 1992, 124.
30. Quoted in Samhain, 1903, 35.
31. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, 1904, 20.
32. Rushdie, Imaginary Homelands, 124-5, 210, 149.
33. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, 1908, 7.

TEN: J. M. SYNGE - REMEMBERING THE FUTURE
1. All phrases from J. M. Synge, “The Playboy of the Western World ”, Plays 2, ed. Ann Saddlemyer, Oxford 1968
2. Ibid., 75.
3. Ibid., 161.
4. Rene Girard, Violence and the Sacred, translated by Patrick Gregory, Baltimore 1977, 77-80.
5. P. H. Pearse, Political Writings and Speeches Dublin 1924. 145-6.
6. Synge, Plays 2, 173.
7. Ibid., 73.
8. W. B. Yeats, Collected Poems, 226.
9. J. M. Synge, preface to Poems, ed. R. Skelton, London 1962, ~aucvi.
10. Yeats, Autobiographies, 531.
11. Kay Dick ed., “Ernest Hemingway ”, Writers at Work: The Paris Review lnterviews, Harmondsworth 1972, 188.
12. J. M. Synge, Collected Letters: 1871-1907, ed. Ann Saddlemyer, Oxford 1983, 297.
13. Synge, Plays 2, 59.
14. Ibid., 81.
15. Ibid., 81.
16. Ibid., 149.
17. Ibid., 153.
18. Ibid., 173.
19. Ibid., 169.
20. See Michael J. Sidnell, “Synge’s Playboy and the Champion of Ulster ”, Dalhousic R~inu4 XLV, Spring 1965, 51-9; and Diane E. Bessai, “Little Hound in Mayo ”, ibid., XLVIII, Autumn 1968, 372-83.
21. Mary C. King, The Drama of J. M. Synge, London 1985, 49.
22. Synge, Plays l, 19.
23. Oliver Goldsmith, “The Deserted Village ”, Ficld Day Anthology 1, Derry 1991, 450.
24. W. B. Yeats, “Notes and Opinions ”, Sambvin, November 1905; also Samhain, October 1902, 3-7.
25. Quoted by Nowlan, The Gaelic League Idea, 48-9.
26. Seamus Deane, “Synge and Heroism ”, Celtic Revivals, London 1985,51-62.
27. David H. Greene and Edward M. Stephens, J. M. Synge 1871-1909, New York 1961, 66.
28. Synge, Plays 2, 63.
29. Fanon, A Dying Colonialism, 83-5.
30. Synge, Plays 2, 63.
31. Ibid., 89.
32. Ibid., 103.
33. Ibid., 95.
34. John Berger, Ways of Seeing, Harmondsworth 1972, 51.
35. Synge, Plays 2, 99.
36. Art Mac Cumhaigh, “Bodaigh na hEorna ”, Dánta, ed. Tomas Ó Fiaich, Dublin 1981, 102.
37. Donal Ó Colmaun, Parliament na mBan, ed. B Ó Cuiv, Dublin 1970, 11. I have modernized spelling in this passage.
38. Donncha Ó Corrain, “Women in Early Irish Society ”, Women in Irish Society, eds. Margaret MacCurtain and Donncha Ó Corraun, Dublin 1978, 11.
39. Synge, Prose, 143.
40. Synge, Plays 2, 97
41. Ibid., 28.
42. See Declan Kiberd, Synge and The Irish Language, 122-50.
43. Synge, Plays 2, 151.
44. Green and Stephens, 241.
45. Synge, Plays 2, 167.
46. Lady Gregory, Cuchulain of Muirthemne, Gerrards Cross 1970, 33.
47. Synge, Plays2, 167.
48. Interview, Freemans Journal, 30 January 1907, 7.
49. Mary Colum, Life and the Dream, London 1947, 139.
50. Green and Stephens, 148.
51. Fanon, TheWretched of the Earth, 119-49.
52. Jacques Lacan, Ecrits: A Selection, New York 1977, 2.
53. The Jungian methodology has been most lucidly explained by Helen M. Luke, “Mirrors ”, Parabola: The Magazine of Myth and Tradition, Vo1. XI, No. 2, Summer 1986, 56-63.
54. Synge, Plays 2, 127.
55. Ibid., 169.
56. Fanon, The Wretched of The Earth, 180.
57. Synge, Prose, 398.
58. Synge, Poems, 49.
59. Fanon, Wretched, 181.

REVOLUTION AND WAR: INTERCHAPTER
1. Richard Davis, Arthur Griffith and Non-Violent Sinn Fein, Tralee 1974.
2. Brian Murphy, Patrick Pearse and the Lost Republican Ideal, Dublin 1991.
3. Sean O’Casey, The Story of the Irish Citizen Army, Dublin 1919.
4. C. Desmond Greaves, The Easter Rising as History, London 1966.
5. Quoted by Mary Kotsonouris, Retreat from Revolution: The Dail Courts 1920-24, Dublin 1994, 21.
6. Tim Pat Coogan, Michael Collins: A Biography, London 1990.
7. Lord Craigavon (Sir James Craig), Northern Ireland Parliamentary Debates, Hansard, House of Commons, Vol. 16, Col. 1095.
8. Michael Farrell, Northern Ireland: The Orange State, London 1980.

ELEVEN: UPRISING
1. Standish O’Grady, History of Ireland: Heroic Period, London 1878, v.
2. Quoted by Yeats, Autobiographies, 424.
3. Yeats, Collected Poems, 393.
4. George Russell, TheLiving Torch, ed. Monk Gibbon, London 1937,134-44.
5. Yeats, Collected Poems, 375.
6. V. I. Lenin, On Ireland, London 1949, 32-3.
7. Conor Cruise O’Brien, “The Embers of Easter ”, 1916 The Easter Rising, ed. Owen Dudley Edwards and Fergus Pyle, London 1968, 227. Connolly quotation ibid.
8. On this phenomenon in other revolutionary situations see Crane Brinton, The Anatomy of Revolution, New York 1965, 34, 42, 53, 68ff.
9. Russell, Thoughts for a Convention, 7.
10. Yeats, Essays and Controversies, 24. There are some anti-English outbursts in the writings of Pearse, but even Fr Francis Shaw - no admirer of Pearse - comments that “nowhere does Pearse teach as explicitly as Tone the duty of hate ”, “The Canon of Irish History: A Challenge ”, Studies, Summer 1972, LXI, 126.
11. Shaw, The Matter with Ireland, 112.
12. Yeats, Collected Poems, 205.
13. Thomas MacDonagh, “Language and Literature in Ireland ”, The Irish Review, IV, March-April 1914, 176-82.
14. P. H. Pearse, Plays, Stories, Poems, Dublin 1924, 336.
15. Letters of W. B. Yeats, 295.
16. Quoted by Conor Cruise O’Brien, Ancestral Voices Dublin 1994, 68.
17. Pearse, Plays, Stories, Poems, 44.
18. Joseph Mary Plunkett, Poems, Dublin 1916, 59-60.
19. Yeats, Collected Plays, 591.
20. Richard Sennett, The Fall of Public Man: On the Social Psychology of Capitalism, New York 1978, 184, 184, 186.
21. Ibid., 192.
22. Yeats, Plays and controversies, 161.
23. Ibid., 158.
24. J. P. Sartre, Life/Situations, New York 1977, 167.
25. Beltaine, No. 3, April 1900.
26. Yeats, Collected Poems, 373.
27. Jose Ortega Y Gasset, Espana Invertebrada, Madrid 1922, 3, 146-50.
28. Yeats, Collected Plays, 431-46.
29. Harold Rosenberg, “The Resurrected Romans ”, The Tradition of the New, Chicago 1982, 155ff.
30. Brinton, 203.
31. Maura nic Shiubhlaigh, The Splendid Years, Dublin 1955, 87.
32. Quoted Coogan, Michacl Gllins, 53-4.
33. On this see Robert Wohl, The Generation of 1914, Cambridge, Mass. 1979.
34. Pearse, Plays, Stories, Poems, 323.
35. Yeats, Collected Poems, 206.
36. Desmond FitzGerald, Memoirs 191S16, London 1968, 142-3.
37. Pearse, Plays, Stories, Poems, 324.
38. Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and The Spirit of Capitalism, London 1985, 104ff.
39. Quoted by Bruce Mazlish, The Revolutionary Ascetic, New York 1976, 85.
40. J. J. Horgan, From Parnell to Pevrse, Dublin 1948, 285.
41. Shaw, Studies, Summer 1972, 123.
42. P. H. Pearse, “The Coming Revolution ”, November 1913, 91-2.
43. See Eric Hobsbawn, “Mass-Producing Traditions: Europe 1870-1914 ”, The Invention of Tradition, 271.
44. Ronald Paulson, Representations of Revolution 1789-1820, New Haven 1983, 14.
45. Tom Paine, The Rights of Man, Harmondsworth 1969, 71, 73.
46. Bernard MacLaverty, Cal, Belfast 1984, 73.
47. Yeats, Collected Poems, 202-5.
48. Yeats, “The Tragic Theatre ”, Essays and Introductions, 245.

TWELVE: THE PLEBEIANS REVISE THE UPRISING
l. Joseph Holloway, Impressions of a Dublin Playgoer: A Selection, eds. Robert Hogan and Michael J. O’Neill, London 1967, 215.
2. David Krause, Sean O’Casey: the Man and his Work, London 1967, 22ff; and Robert G. Lowery, “Sean O’Casey: Art and Politics ”, Sean O’Casey; Centenary Essays, eds. Krause and Lowery, Gerrards Cross 1980, 123ff.
3. Citations from Krause, 4-7.
4. Sean O’Casey, Drums Under the Windows, 115-30. Reference to the shilling fee is on 130.
5. Samuel Beckew, “Sean O’Casey ”, Disjecta, New York 1984, 82.
6. O’Casey, Drums, 73.
7. Quoted by Herbert Coston, “Prelude to Playwriting ”, Sean O’Casey: Modern Judgements, ed. R Ayling, London 1969, 49, 50.
8. Quoted by Onwuchekwa Gemie, Langston Hughes: An Introduction, New York 1976, 28.
9. Sean O’Casey, Three Plays, London 1957, 111.
10. Ibid., 110.
11. Ibid., 110-11.
12. Ibid., 27.
13. Ibid., 8.
14. Ibid., 70.
15. Nic Shiubhlaigh, The Splendid Yevrs, 145.
16. O’Casey, Innishfallen, Fare Thee Well (with Rose and Crown, Sunset and Evening Star), London 1963, 125-38.
17. Bertolt Brecht, The Life of Galileo, London 1963, 107-8.
18. Capt. David Platt in a letter to his wife Jane, May 1916.
19. ThreePlays, 178.
20. This is the argument put, with some qualifications, by Williarn Irwin Thompson, The Imagination of an Insurrection: Dublin Easter 1916, 114ff.
21. Three Plays, 46.
22. Yeats, Mythologies, 331.
23. Three Plays, 169.
24. Ibid., 208.
25. Ibid., 164, 193, 193-4.
26. O’Casey, Drums, 273. Connolly ordered that looters be shot.
27. Seamus Deane, Celtic Revivals, 109. See also Greaves, Sean O’Casey: Politics and Art, 116-22.
28. Patrick Pearse, Political Writings, Dublin 1924, 371, 376.
29. O’Casey cites this as the major reason in his autobiography, but his history of the Citizen Army refers favourably to uniforms. See Greaves, 74.
30. Karl Marx, Surveys from Exile, ed. David Fernbach, Harmondsworth 1973, 94.
31. Quoted Marshall Berman, All That is Solid Melts into Air, London 1983, 22-3.
32. Pearse, Political Writings, 216.
33. See Declan Kiberd, “Inventing Irelands ”, The Crane Bag, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1984, 11-25.
34. Wohl, The Generation of 1914, 5.
35. Pearse, Political Writings, 216.
36. Wohl, 236.
37. Francis Sheehy Skeffington, “An Open Letter to Thomas MacDonagh ”, 1916 The Easter Rising, eds. Edwards and Pyle, 150.
38. Coston, O’Casey: Modern Judgements, 54.
39. In this I follow the analysis of Raymond Williams, Drama from Ibsen to Brecht, Harmondsworth 1973, 161-9.
40. C. S. Andrews, Man of No Property; Dublin 1982, 53-5.
41. They were the most popular of all plays in the Abbey repertoire and The Plough was the most often revived: Ernest Blythe, The Abbey Theatre, Dublin 1963, 9. T. R. Henn says they offered audiences “a defence mechanism against the rawness of their recent memories of the ‘Troubles’ ”, The Harvest of Tragedy, London 1956, 212.
42. Alexander Pope, public letter to John Gay, Daily Journal, 23 December 1731.
43. Three Plays, 185.
44. Lennox Robinson ed., Lady Gregory’s Journals, London 1946, 97.
45. Quoted by Una Ellis-Fermor, “Poetry in Revolt ”, Sean O’Casey: Modern Judgements, 108.
46. Three Plays, 215.

THIRTEEN: THE GREAT WAR AND IRISH MEMORY
1. Francis Ledwidge, “Larnent for Thomas MacDonagh ”, Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, 2, 774.
2. Reproduced in 1916: The Easter Rising, 220.
3. There is a good account of the epistolary controversy in “The Silver Tassie: Letters ”, Sean O’Casey: A Collection of Critical Essays ed. Thomas Kilroy, New Jersey 1975, 113-17.
4. Bertrand Russell, Autobiography, London 1975, 283.
5. Sean O’Casey, Three More Plays, London 1965, 34.
6. Ibid., 41.
7. Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Metnory, London 1975, 26-8.
8. Three More Plays, 38.
9. This point is well argued by Krause, 109-22.
10. Three More Plays, 59.
11. Ibid., 51.
12. Ibid., 53, 48.
13. Ibid., 105.
14. Ibid., 97.
15. Ibid., 67.
16. D. H. Lawrence, Kangaroo, Harmondsworth 1951, 241.
17. Fussell, 86-8, 196.
18. The phrase is used by Dick Diver in Tender is the Night, Harmondsworth 1955, 125.
19. Letters of K: B. Yeats, 874.
20. Henry James, Letters 2, ed. Perey Lubbock, New York 1920, 384.
21. Wohl, 115.

FOURTEEN: IRELAND AND THE END OF EMPIRE
1. Conor Cruise O’Brien, foreword, The Shaping of Modern Ireland, London 1960, 10.
2. See The Gonne-Yeats Letters 1893-1938, eds. MeBride and Jeffares, London 1992, 293-4.
3. W. B. Yeats, Explorations, New York 1962, 401. On the theme see Ganesh Devi, “India and Irdand: Literary Relations ”, J. MeMinn ed., The Internationalism of Irish Literature and Drama, Gerrards Cross 1992, 300-3.
4. Yeats, Essays anl Introductions, 515.
5. Dhananjay Keer, VeerSavakar, Popular Prabakashan, Bombay 19504i6,77.
6. Eamon de Valera, India and Ireland, speech to Friends of the Freedom of India, New York 1920, 3.
7. Ibid., 6, 8, 11, 16-17, 24.
8. See C. Desmond Greaves, Liam Mellows and the Irish Revolution, London 1971, 205, 216; Ramesa-Chandra Majumdar, History of she Freedom Movement of India, Vol. 2, 387-91, 398-402; and Liz Curtis, The Cause of Ireland, London 1995, 124-5, 175-6, 315-16.
9. British Cabinet Papers, 458, 15 Jan 1920, CAB 24/96, 13(185).
10. H. A. L. Fisher’s diary, 1921. Information from Tim Pat Coogan.
11. A. P. Thornton, The Imperial Idea and its Enemies, 217.
12. Dail Eireann debates, August 1921, private sessions, 12: Sean T. O’Kelly’s report.
13. Anthony Babington, The Devil to Pay: The Mutiny of the Connaught Rangers, India, July 1920, London 1991, 3-4.
14. Ibid., 7, 10, 27, 28, 63, 65, quoted 86, quoted 26.
15. Sean T. O’Kelly, India and Ireland, New York 1924, 2.
16. Ibid., 3, 4, 9.
17. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol . XXII (1921-2), New Delhi 1966, 17-18.
18. O’Kelly, 11.
19. On this see George Gilmore, The Irish Republican Congress, Dublin. Rev. ed. 1978, 30, which alleges that de Valera refused Patel’s request for support for his Indian Congress in its anti-imperial struggle in 1932. The IRA also seemed uninterested: Patel recorded that only Maud Gonne was keen to help.

INVENTING IRELANDS: INTERCHAPTER
1. Kotsonouris, Retreatfrom Revolution, 99-105 for O’Higgins’s role.
2. Terence Brown, Ireland: A Social and Cultural History 1922-79, London 1981, 42.
3. W. R. Rodgers, Irish Literary Portrvits, London 1972, 10.
4. Yeats, Autobiographies, 533.
5. Mairtin Ó Cadhain, “Irish Prose in the Twentieth Century ”, Literature in Celtic Guntries, Cardiff 1971, 150 £

FIFTEEN: WRITING IRELAND, READING ENGLAND
1. Appendix 1, “ The Irish Times on the Easter Rising ”, 1916: The Easter Rising, 247.
2. Letters of W. B. Yeats, 349.
3. Edward Dowden, “The Teaching of Literature ”, New Studies in Literature, London 1895, 445.
4. Yeats, Essays and Introductions, 104.
5. Yeats, “The Literary Movement in Ireland ”, Ideals in Ireland, 101.
6. Yeats, Essays and Introductions, 108.
7. Yeats, Explorations, 222.
8. For more on Crashaw’s 1610 sermon see Edwards, Threshold of a Nation, Cambridge 1979, 98-100.
9. A. P. Rossiter, quoted by Kenneth Muir, introduction, Richard II, New York 1963, xxviii.
10. Quoted by John Devitt, “English for the Irish ”, The Crane Bag, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1982, 108.
11. James Joyce, Ulysses, Harmondsworth 1992, 271, 272.
12. Nicholas Mansergh, The Irish Question 1840-1921, 88-9.
13. Holloway, diaries, National Library manuscripts.
14. Quoted by Ellmann, Oscar Wil-, 41.
15. Sankaran Ravindran, W B. Yeats and Indian Tradition, Delhi 1990, 19-32.
16. James Joyce, A Portrvit of the Artist as a Young Man, Harmondsworth 1992, 228.
17. Edward Dowden, “The Serenity of The Tempes/’, The Tempest: A Sekstion of Critical Essays, ed. D. J. Palmer, London 1968, 75.
18. Edward Dowden, “The Scientific Movement and Literature ”, Studies in Literature, London 1878, 114.
19. Joyce, Portrait, 205-6.
20. Synge, preface to The Playboy, P/ays 2, 53-4.
21. Deane, Celtie Rtvivals, 48.
22. Cited David Reed, Ireland: The Key to the British Revolution, London 1984, 9-11.
23. See Paul Buhle, C. L. R James: TheArtist as Rzvolutionary, London 1988, 160.
24. See Roberto Fernandez Retamar, Caliban and Other Essays, translated by Edward Baker, Minneapolis 1989.
25. William Shakespeare, The Tempest, ed. Robert Langbaum, New York 1964, 55.
26. Samuel Beckett, Endgame, London 1964, 32.
27. The Tempest, 54.
28. Ibid., 89.
29. G. Wilson Knight, The Crown of Life, London, 138.
30. The Tempest, 121.
31. Ibid., 110.
32. George Lamming, The Pleasures of Exile, London 1984, 110.
33. Seamus Heaney, North, London 1975, 65.
34. Ulysses, 235.
35. Wilde, The Artist as Critic, 235.
36. Ibid., 307.
37. Ulysses, 6.
38. Ellis-Fermor, The Irish Dramatic Movement, 59-90.
39. Shakespeare, The Winters Tak,
40. Wilde, TheArtist as Critic, 291.
41. Yeats, Autobiographies, 89.
42. Seamus Ó Buachalla, ed., A Significant Irish Educationalist: Educational Writings of Patrick Pearse, Cork 1980, 353-4.
43. Buhle, C. L. R James, 18.
44. Lamming, Pleasures, 27.
45. Significant Irish Educationalist, 354-5.
46. Lamming, Pleasures, 42.
47. Significant Irish Educationalist, 372.
48. Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism, translated by Joan Pinkham, New York 1972, 21.
49. The comparison was first made by Tomas Ban Ó Concheanainn; and later taken up by Douglas Hyde.
50. Letters of W. B. Yeats, 414.
51. Both Earnest and Intentions contain ideas of educational reform.
52. Significant Irish Educationalist, 374, 377.
53. Ibid., 377.
54. Yeats, Autobiographies, 291.
55. Chris Baldick, The Social Mission of English Criticism 1848-1932, Oxford 1983.

SIXTEEN: INVENTING IRELANDS
1. Quoted by R. Poirier, A World Elsewhere, Wisconsin 1985, 210.
2. Tomas 6 Criomhthainn, Allagar na hInse, Dublin 1928, 115.
3. Muiris Ó Suilleabhain, Fiche Blian ag Fás, Maynooth 1976, 196.
4. Synge, Prose, 140.
5. Weldon Thornton, J. M. Synge and the Western Mind, Gerrards Cross 1979, 98ff.
6. These features are all discussed in, for instance, Edward Said’s Orientalism, New York 1978.
7. Synge, Prose, 50-1, 140, 140.
8. Jean-Paul Sartre, Anti-Semite and Jew, New York 1968, 78.
9. W. B. Yeats, Letters to the New Island, Cambridge, Mass. 1934, 109.
10. Sartre, 97.
11. Yeats, Essays and Introductions, 372-3, 357.
12. Yeats, Samhain, 1908, 8-9.
13. On this see Thomas R. Whitaker, Swan and Shadow: Yeats’s Dialogue with History, Chapel Hill 1964, 95-6.
14. The phrase is Aijaz Ahmed’s: see In Theory: Classes, Nations, Literatures, London 1992, 95-122.
15. Yeats, Essays and Introductions, 317.
16. Yeats, John Sherman and Dhoya, 116.
17. Yeats, Plays and Controversies, 95.
18. Yeats, Explorations, 345.
19. Whitaker, 221.
20. Carlos Fuentes, “Remember the Future ”, Salmagundi, Fall 1985/Winter 1986, No. 68-9, 338-43.
21. Ibid., 338.
22. Walter Benjamin, “Theses on the Philosophy of History ”, Illuminations, tr. Harry Zohn, London 1973, 263.
23. Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Advantage and Disadvantage of History for Life, tr. Peter Preuss, Indianapolis 1980.
24. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 135.
25. The phrase is Ernie O’Malley’s, On Another Man’s Wound, Kerry 1979,41.
26. Quoted by Bernard Ransome, Connolly’s Marxism, London 1980, 18.
27. Sigmund Freud, A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis, tr. Joan Riviere, New York 1920, 325.
28. George Russell, The National Being, Dublin 1916, 81.
29. Yeats, Collected Poems, 233.
30. Ibid., 225.
31. Yeats, Uncollected Prose 2, ed. John P. Frayne, 452.
32. Yeats, Collected Poems, 166-7.
33. Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity 1-52 for main thesis.
34. Jean-Paul Sartre, Words, tr. Irene Clephane, Harmondsworth 1967, 71.
35. Wilde, The Artist as Critic, 358.
36. Ibid., 375.
37. Quoted by Isaiah Berlin, Vico and Herder, London 1976, 203.
38. Yeats, Letters to The New Island, 174.
39. Fred Jameson, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act, London 1981, 68.
40. Yeats, Collected Plays, 133.
41. Ibid., 111-12.
42. Jameson, The Political Unconscious, 81.
43. Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism, Princeton 1957, 193.
44. Synge, Prose, 350.
45. Synge, Poems, 34.
46. Ibid., 38.
47. Synge Manuscripts TCD, MS 4382, P69v.
48. Wilde, The Artist as Critic, 398.
49. Ibid., 283-4.

SEVENTEEN: REVOLT INTO STYLE - YEATSIAN POETICS
1. Yeats, Collected Poems, 8.
2. Ibid., 9.
3. Ibid., 35.
4. Yeats, Essays and Introductions, 195.
5. Yeats, Collected Poems, 71.
6. Yeats, Plays and Controversies, 161.
7. Yeats, Collected Poems, 88.
8. Ibid., 89.
9. Ibid., 126.
10. Ibid., 141.
11. On this see Autobiographies, 330-2; Essays and Introductions, 111-45.
12. Yeats, Collected Poems, 151-2.
13. Ibid., 197.
14. Ibid., 232.
15. Yeats, Collected Plays, 206.
16. Ibid., 235.
17. Ibid., 241.

EIGHTEEN: THE LAST AISLING - A VISION

1. Yeats, Collected Poems, 240.
2. W. B. Yeats, A Vision, New York 1966, 10-11.
3. Ibid., 24-5.
4. The words are Williarn Blake’s, quoted by Peter Coveney, The Image of Childhood, 54.
5. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Crack-Up with Other Pieces and Storics Harmondsvorth 1965, 39.
6. See A Vision, 2S7.
7. For a superb analysis of the greatest exponent see Sean Ó Tuama, Filx’faoi SceimAk, Dublin 1979.
8. Quoted by Ellmann, Yeats: The Man and The Masks, London 1965, 249.
9. Yeats, A Vision, 8.
10. Quoted by Ellmann, The Man and The MasJes, 6.
11. Letters of W. B. Yeats, 656.
12. Yeats, Explorations, 336.
13. A Vision, 52.
14. Ibid., 52.
15. Ibid., 84.
16. On this see Alfred Cobban, “The Revolt against the Eighteenth Century ”, Romanticism and Consciousness, ed. H. Bloom, New York 1972, 64.
17. Yeats, Explorations, 333-4.
18. I take this from T. J. Diffey, “The Roots of Imagination ”, The Romantics, ed. Prickett, London 1981, 165-72.
19. Quoted ibid., 190.
20. Yeats, Collected Poems, 240-1.
21. Yeats, Essays and Introductions, 158.
22. Ibid., 341.
23. A Vision, 114.
24. Whitaker, 95. The phrase glossed is from Autobiographies
25. Yeats, Collected Poems, 266.
26. Quoted by Jeffares, A Commentary on the Collected Poems of W. B. Yeats, Stanford 1968, 352.
27. A Vision, 263.
28. Ibid., 205-6.

NINETEEN: JAMES JOYCE AND MYTHIC REALISM
1. Gerald Griffin, The Wild Geese, London 1938, 24.
2. For more contemporary examples see Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, The Postcolonial Critic, London 1990, 165.
3. Ellsworth Mason and Richard Ellmann, The Critical Writings of James Joyce, New York 1959, 174.
4. Ibid., 198.
5. Djuna Barnes, “James Joyce ”, Vanity Fair, XVIII, April 1922, 65.
6. Quoted Ellmann, James Joyce, 403.
7. Deleuze and Guattari, Kafka, 41.
8. R. Ellmann ed., Letters of James Joyce 2, London 1966, 134.
9. Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, 274.
10. Ibid., 205.
11. Ibid., 220.
12. Ibid., 274.
13. James Joyce, Finnegans Wake, Harmondsworth 1992, 171.
14. Salman Rushdie, Imaginary Homelands, London 1992, 11.
15. Letters of James Joyce 1, 63.
16. Joyce, A Portrvit, 228.
17. Joyce, Critical Writings, 196.
18. Ibid., 224, 212.
19. Ibid., 163.
20. Ibid., 168.
21. Ibid., 188.
22. Ibid., 195.
23. Vincent Tucker, “The Myth of Development ”, Unpublished paper, Dept. of Sociology, University College Cork 1993.
24. Joyce, Critical Writings, 173.
25. This was the allegation made by John Eglinton against revivalist representations of the western peasant.
26. Joyce, Critical Writings, 166.
27. Yeats, Collected Poems, 167.
28. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, 127-46.
29. Rushdie, Imaginary Homelands, 376.
30. Gerald Martin, Journeys Through the Labyrinth: Latin American Fiction in the Twentieth Century, London 1989, 206.
31. Octavio Paz, “A Literature of Foundation ”, in J. Donoso and W. Henkins eds., The Triquarterly Anthology of Latin American Literature, New York 1969, 8 (tr. Laysander Kemp).
32. Jorge Luis Borges, Labyrinths, Harmondsworth 1970, 221-4.
33. Roberto Fernandez Retamar, Caliban and Other Essays, tr. Edward Baker Minneapolis 1989, 28.
34. Joyce, Ulysses, 248.
35. Rushdie, Imaginary Homelands, 420.
36. R. A. Breatnach, “The End of a Tradition ”, Studia Hibernica, 1961, 142.
37. On this see Cathal Ó Haunle, “An tÚrscéal nár Tháaunig’, Promhadh Pinn, Dublin 1978, 74-98.
38. Ulysses, 449.
39. Linda Hutcheon, A Theory of Parody: The Teaching of Twentieth Century Art Forms, London 1985, 35.
40. Jameson, The Political Unconscious, 146.
41. Tucker, ibid.,
42. Spivak, The Postcolonial Critic, 8.
43. See Emer Nolan, James Joyce and Nationalism, London 1994.
44. Ulysses, 42.
45. Ibid., 49.
46. Ibid., 56.
47. Ibid., 55.
48. Ibid., 45.
49. Ibid., 181.
50. Ibid., 248.
51. Ibid., 235.
52. Ibid., 258.
53. Ibid., 239-40.
55 On the decline in deference see David Fitzpatrick, Politics and Irish Life 1913-21, Dublin 1977; and 1. J. Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Sociey 1848-1918, Dublin 1973.
56. Ulysses, 427.
57. Ibid., 432.
58. Ibid., 445.
59. Ibid., 401.
60. Ibid., 434.
61. Ibid., 435-6.
62. Ibid., 539.
63. W. B. Yeats, Samhain, December 1906, 6.
64. Ulysses, 60.

SEXUAL POLITICS: INTERCHAPTER
1. Michael O’Sullivan, Sean Lemass: A Biography, Dublin 1994, 55.
2 For a good survey see Francis MeManus ed., The Years of the Great Test 1926-39, Cork 1967.
3. Yeats, Collected Poems, 377-81.
4. On de Valera’s rivalry with Collins, and for a full assessment of his 1937 constitution, see Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow, London 1993, 197-229 and 489-99.
5. The strongest case for viewing Yeats as fascist is Conor Cruise O’Brien, Passion and Cunning, London 1988 (1965); but Elizabeth Cullingford’s answer in Yeats, Ireland and Fascism, London 1981, is decisive.
6. W. B. Yeats, “Divorce ”, The Senate Speeches of 1E B. Yeats, ed. Donald R. Pearce, Indiana 1960, 157.
7. Ibid., 104-5.
8. Yeats, Uncollected Prose 1, 462-3.
9. Yeats, Autobiographies, 333.
10 Yeats, Uncollected Prose 1, 462-3.
11 On this see C. L. Innes, Women and Nation in Irish Literature and Sociey 1880-1935, Athens, Georgia 1993, 9-62.
12. Francis Sheehy Skeffington, 1916, The Easter Rising, 151

TWENTY: ELIZABETH BOWEN - THE DANDY IN REVOLT
l. Elizabeth Bowen, The Shelbourne, London 1951, 128.
2. Elizabeth Bowen, The Last September, Harmondsworth 1987, 46.
3. Elizabeth Bowen, Bowens Court, London 1942, 22.
4. Ibid., 97.
5. Quoted by Victoria Glendinning, Elizabeth Bowen: Portrvit of a Writer, Harmondsworth 1985, 12.
6. Quoted by Edwin J. Kenney, Elizabeth Bowen, Lewisburg 1975, 23.
7. Ibid., 92-3.
8. Quoted Glendinning, 120-1.
9. Ibid., 164-5.
10. Ibid., 117.
11. Elizabeth Bowen, Pictures and Conversations, London 1975, 23.
12. Bowens Court, 15.
13. The Last Septanber, 89.
14. Quoted Kenney, 38.
15. The Last September, 131.
16. Ibid., 32-3.
17. The Last September, 98.
18. Ibid., 34.
19. Ibid., 60.
20. Ibid., 46.
21. Ibid., 134.
22. Ibid., 44.
23. Ibid., 49.
24. Ibid., 49.
25. Glendinning, 206.
26. Quoted Glendinning, 160.
27. The Last September, 44.
28. Ibid., 58.
29. Walter Benjamin, Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism, tr. Harry Zohn, London 1983, 74.
30. The Last September, 98.
31. Benjamin, 75.
32. The Last September, 187.
33. Ibid., 161.
34. Ibid., 82.
35. Benjamin, 95-6.
36. Bowens Court, 194.
37. Elizabeth Bowen, The House in Paris, London 1935, 94.
38. Elizabeth Bowen, Collected Impressions, London 1950, 161.
39. Ibid., 198.
40. Bowens Court, 338.
41. Quoted Kenney, 18.
42. Quoted Kenney, 23-4.
43. Quoted Glendinning, 139.
44. Quoted Ibid., 139.

TWENTY-ONE: FATHERS AND SONS
1. Albert Memmi, The Colonizer and The Colonized, tr. Howard Greenfeld, Boston 1967, 95-100.
2. Ibid., 101.
3. Patrick Kavanagh, “The Great Hunger ”, Collected Poems, London 1972,36.
4. Sean O’Casq, Three Plays, 71.
5. Joyce, A Portrait, 262.
6. Joyce, Ulysses, 798.
7. Ibid., 266.
8. Ibid., 33.
9. Synge, Plays 2, 97.
10. Ibid., 151.
11. Ibid., 85.
12. Ibid., 149.
13. Matthew Bruccoli, As Ever, Scott-Fitz, London 1973, 184.
14. Fanon, A Dying Colonialism, tr. Haakon Chevalier, Harmondsworth 1970, 81.
15. Ibid., 83, 85.
16. Ibid., 86.
17. B. C. Rosset, Shaw of Dublin: The Formative Years, Pennsylvania 1964, 55, 102.
18. The phrase was used by Michael Holroyd, lecture, Carlow, 11 May 1992.
19. Dublin Evening Mail, 21 September 1923, 4.
20. Stanley Weintraub ed., Shaw: An Autobiogruphy 185a98, London 1969, 52.
21. Ibid., 24.
22. Salman Rushdie, Midnights Children, London 1981, 108.
23. Ibid., 111.
24. Fanon, A Dying Colonialism, 82.
25. Ibid., 83.
26. Letters of W. B. Yeats, 589.
27. Yeats, Autobiographies, 28.
28. Ibid., 66.
29. Letters of W B. Yeats, 583.
30. Joyce, Portrait, 3.
31. Ibid., 89
32. Hannah Arendt, Between Past and Future: Six Exercises in Political Thought, London 1961,
33. Deleuze and Guattari, Kafka 10.
34. Quoted by Takeo Doi, The Anatomy of Dependence, Tokyo 1986, 157.
35. Joyce, Portrait, 3.
36. Ibid., 5.
37. Carl E. Schorske, Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture, New York 1981, 191-7.
38. Yeats, Collected Poems, 105.
39 Peter Gay, Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider, New York 1970, 141.
41. Robin Skynner and John Cleese, Families and How to Survive Them, London 1983, 189ff.
42. Virginia Woolf, “ML Bennett and Mr. Brown ”, The Captains Death Bed,
43 Erich Fromm, The Fear of Freedom, London 1984, 148-9.
45. Fanon, The Wretched of The Earth, 135.
46. Norman O. Brown, Lif against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of History, Middletown, Connecticut, 1959, 92.
47. This is Wohl’s summary of the ideas of Karl Mannheim, The Generation of 1914, 77.
48. Cited Wohl, 196.
49. Ibid., 196.
50. David Fitzpatrick, Irish Emigration 1801-1921, Dundalk 1984, 41.

TWENTY-TWO: MOTHERS AND DAUGHTERS
1. Carol Coulter, The Hidden Tradition: Ftminism, Women and Nationalism in Ireland, Cork 1993, 12.
2. See Margaret Ward, Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish Nationalism, London 1983, 4-39.
3. Joseph J. Lee, “Women and the Chureh since the Famine ”, Women in Irish Society: The Historical Dimension, 41.
4. Rosemary Cullen Owens, Smashing Times: A History of The Irish Womens Suffrage Movement 1889-1922, Dublin 1984, 31-5.
5. Quoted Margaret MacCurtain, “Women, the Vote and Revolution ” Women in Irish Society, 49.
6. Mary Colum, Life and The Dream, New York 1947, 174.
7. Hanna Sheehy Skeffington, quoted by Leah Levenson and Jerry H Natterstad, Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington: Irish Feminist, Syracuse 1986, 29.
8. Rosemary Cullen Owens, 63.
9. Ibid., 42.
10. Constance Markievicz, Bean na hEireann, Vol.1, No. 4, February 1909, 2
11. Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington, ibid., Vol. 2, No. 13, November 1909, 54
12. D. P. Moran, The Leader, 19 March 1910.
13. ‘Maca ”, Bean na hEireann, July 1909- cited Owens 104
14. Editorial, The Irish Citizen, 2 May 1914.
15. Ward, 91.
16. Cited by Levenson and Natterstad, 75.
17. MacCurtain, Women in Irish Society, 55.
18. Cullen Owens, 85.
19. Quoted C. L. Innes, Woman and Nation, 143.
20. Ward, 111.
21. An Phoblacht, 16 July 1932.
22. Ward, 109.
23. Ibid., 111-17.
24. Coulter, The Hidden Tradition, 18.
25. Levenson and Natterstad, 116.
26. Cited Ward, 123.
27. Irish Citizen, October 1916.
28. Ward, 145.
29. Quoted Levenson and Natterstad, 135.
30. “Reprisals Condemned ”, Freemans Journal, 19 February 1921, 5.
31. Levenson and Natterstad, 135.
32. Ward, 167; also Levenson and Natterstad, 139ff.
33. Ward, 176.
34. Ibid., 178.
35. Quotations in Levenson and Natterstad, 112.
36. Cullen Owens, 130-1.
37. Ward, 179ff.
38. Ibid., 193.
39. Ibid., 192.
40. Mary Robinson, “Women and the New Irish State ”, Women in Irish Society; 63.
41. Levenson and Natterstad, 161.
42. Statement by Sean Lemass, Daily Express, 7 May 1930.
43. Cited Ward 244.
44. Quoted Elm Pat Coogan, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow, 497.
45. Maurice Manning, “Women in Irish National and Local Politics 192272 ”, Women in Irish Society, 95-6.
46. Quoted by Coogan, 497.
47. Helena Molony, “James Connolly and Women ”, Dublin Labour Year Book, 1930.
48. Carol Coulter, “Ireland: Between First and Third Worlds ”, A Dozen Lips, Dublin 1994, 111.
49. Quoted by Coogan, De Valera, 497.
50. Quoted by Jeffares, A Commentary on The Poems of W. B. Yeats, 370.
51. C. L. Innes, Woman and Nation, 35.
52. Andrew Parker, Mary Russo, Doris Sommer and Patricia Yaeger, introduction, Nationalisms and Sexualities, London 1992, 5.
53. Ann MeClintock, quote ibid., 6.
54. Geraldine Heng and Ganadas Devan, “State Fatherhood: the Politics of Nationalism, Sexuality and Race in Singapore ”, Nationalisms andSexualities, 343.
55. Ibid., 343.
56. Basil Davidson, “On Revolutionary Nationalism: The Legacy of Cabral ”, Race and Class, 27, No. 3, Winter 1986, 43.
57. Adele Dalsimer, Kate O’Brien: A Critical Study, Dublin 1990, xiv.
58. See Dalsimer, 59-72; and Eibhear Walshe ed., Ordinary People Dancing,
Cork 1993.
59. See Seamus Deane, “Mary Lavin ”, The Irish Short Story, eds. Patrick Rafroidi and Terence Brown, Lille 1978, 23748; and AA. Kelly, Mary Lavin: Quiet Rebel, Dublin 1980.

PROTESTANT REVIVALS: INTERCHAPTER
1. Patrick Buckland, Irish Unionism 1: The Anglo-Irish and the Ncw Ireland
188g1922, Dublin 1973, 288.
2. Donald R Pearee ed., The Senate Speeches of W. B. Yeats, 52, 94, 97, 98,
101, 158, 177-8, 160.
3. W. B. Yeats, Explorations, 337.
4. See Michael Farrell, Arming the Protestants, DingLe 1983, 89-92, 114-15.
5. Michael Farrell, Northern Ireland: The Orange State, London 1976, 97ff.
6. Quoted ibid., 93-4.
7. Paddy Devlin, Strvight Left: An Autobiogruphy, Belfast 1993, chaps. 1-3.
8. National Council for Civil Liberties, Commission of Enquiry into purposes and effect of the Civil Authorities (Special Powers) Acts 1922 and 1933: London 1936, 11.
9. On the general attitude of Protestants, see F. S. L. Lyons, “The Minority Problem in the 26 Counties ”, The Years of The Great Test 192g39, 92-103.
10. Conor Cruise O’Brien, States of Ireland, London 1972, 117.

TWENTY-THREE: PROTHOLICS AND CATHESTANTS
1. G. B. Shaw, The Matter witk Ireland, 32.
2. Ibid., 72.
3. Edmund Burke, Irish Affairs, 350.
4. G. B. Shaw, Autobiography 185g98, 14.
5. Ibid., 68.
6. E. M. Forster, A Passage to India, London 1965, 269.
7. Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism, London 1993, 1-50.
8. Hubert Butler, Escapefrom theAnthill, Mullingar 1985, 114-21.
9. George Moore, Hail and Farewell, 391.
10. Synge, Prose, 13.
11. Synge, Plays 2, 65.
12. Ibid., 73.
13. Synge, Plays 1, 133.
14. Synge, Plays2, 215.
15. Ibid., 267.
16. G. M. Young, Victorian England: Portrait of an Age, London 1936, 5.
17. Vivian Mereier, “Evangelical Revival in the Chureh of Ireland 1800-69 ”, Modern Irish Literature: Sourees and Founders, Oxford 1994, 64.
18. Standish O’Grady, All Ireland Review, No. 4, 1903, 340.
19. Yeats, Autobiographies, 115.
20. The terms were devised by Brendan Kennelly in a lecture at Kavanagh’s Yearly, Monaghan, 1990.
21. Quoted by W. M. Murphy, Prodigal Father, 137.
22 Quoted ibid., 249-50.
23 James Joyce, Poems and Eiciles, Harmondsworth 1992, 107.
24. G. B. Shaw, Autobiography: 1856-98, 146.
25. Shaw, The Matter with Ireland, 69, 71, 73.

TWENTY-FOUR: SAINT JOAN - FABIAN FEMINIST, PROTESTANT MYSTIC
1. Shaw, Autobiography 1856-98, 19.
2. Shaw, Autobiography 1898-1950, New York 1970, 161.
3. Shaw, Autobiography 1856-98, 33.
4. G. B. Shaw, Saint Joan, Harmondsworth 1946, 83.
5. Marina Warner, Joan of Arc: The Image of Female Heroism, London 1981, 145-6.
6. Ibid., 147: St. Paul, epistle to Galatians, 3.28.
7. Ibid., 148.
8. Saint Joan, 73.
9. H. L. Mencken, The Nature and Origin of Religion, New York 1905, 67.
10 Ibid., 68, 76.
11 John Milton, “Areopagitica ”, Prose Writings, London 1958, 158.
12. Holly Hill ed., Playing Joan, New York 1987, 127ff.
13. Eric Bentley, Bernard Shaw, New York 1985, 116-19.
14. James Connolly, Labour in Irish History, Dublin 1966, esp. 1-15.
15. Saint Joan, 98, 99.
16. Ibid., 112.
17. Ibid., 131.
18. Ibid., 148, 149.
19. Ibid., 154.
20. Ibid., 159.

TWENTY-FIVE: THE WINDING STAIR
1. Brian Tyson, The Story of Shaws Saint Joan, Montreal 1982, 6-8.
2. Yeats, Autobiographies, 3.
3. Yeats, Plays and Gntroversies, 33.
4. Ibid., 217.
5. Yeats, Collected Poems, 282.
6. Ibid., 285.
7. Ibid., 285.
8. R. P. Blackmur, “Between Myth and Philosophy ”, Yeats: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. J. Unterecker, New Jersey 1963, 64-74.
9. Yeats, Collected Poems, 280.
10. Ibid., 281.
11. Frank Kermode, Romantic Image, London 1971, 40.
12. Yeats, Collected Poems, 280.
13. Ibid., 275-6.
14. Ibid., 278-9.
15. Ibid., 228.
16. Yeats, Autobiographies, 11-12.
17. Ibid., 86.
18. Ibid., 473.
19. David Daiches, Some Late Victorian Attitudes, London 1969, 97.
20. Yeats, Collected Poems, 267.
21. Ibid., 266.
22. Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 106.
23. Yeats, Collected Poems, 284.
24. J. C. Beckett, The Anglo-Irish Tradition, London 1976, 65.
25. W. M. Murphy, Prodigal Father, 249-50, 618.
26. Louis MacNeice, The Poetry of W. B. Yeats, 97.
27. Synge, Prose, 231.
28. Yeats, Collected Poems, 73.
29. Ibid., 140.
30. Yeats, Essays and Introductions, 339.
31. Ibid., 339.
32. Yeats, Plays and Controversies, 120.
33. Quoted by Darey O’Brien, W. R Rodgers, Lewisburg 1970, 19-20.
34. Quoted by John Wilson Foster, “The Dissidence of Dissent John Hewitt and W. R. Rodgers ”, Across a Roaring Hill, eds. E. Longley and G. Dawe, Belfast 1985, 150.
35. Ibid., 142.
36. Ibid., 141.
37. Donald Harman Akenson, A Mirror to Kathleen’s Face, Montreal 19, 3562.
38. Deirdre Bair, Samucl Beckett: A Biography, London 1978, 38.

TWENTY-SIX: RELIGIOUS WRITING: BECKETT AND OTHERS
1. Samuel Beckett, More Pricks than Kicks, London 1970, 21.
2. Samuel Beckett, Communication with present author, August 1985.
3. Samuel Beckett, Endgame, 35.
4. Samuel Beckett, Waiting for Godot, London 1965, 52.
5. Beckett, Endgame, 38.
6. Beckett, More Pricks, 146.
7 Ibid., 184.
8 John Milton, Poetical Works, ed. D. Bush, London 1966, 218.
9. More Pricks, 81.
10. Samuel Beckett, Murphy, London 1973, 36.
11. Ibid., 102.
12. Ibid., 42.
13. Ibid., 42.
14. Harvey Cox, Turning East, Boston, 1987
15. Murphy, 49.
16 Samuel Beckett, Watt, London 1963, 254.
17 On this see Theodor Adorno, “Toward an Understanding of Endgame ”,
Endgame: A Colkstion of Critictl Essays, ed. Bell Gale Chevigny, New
Jersey 1971, 106ff.
18. Lecture to CliMen Community Arts Festival, Co Galway, September
1984.
19. Samuel Beckett, Proust, New York 1970, 8.
20. Hugh Kenner, A Readers Guięk to Samuel Beckett, London 1973, 134.
21. Quoted by Bair, Samuel Beckett, 198.
22. Samuel Beckett, Molloy: Malone Dies: The UnnamaDk, London 1959,
152.
23. Ibid., 170.
24. Weber, The Protestant Ethic, 148ff.
25. Samuel Beckett, Disiecta, 74.
26. Thomas MacGreevy, Collected Poems, ed. T. D. Redshaw, Dublin 1971, 17
27. Thomas MacGreevy, “Gloria de Carlos V ”, Collected Poems, ed. S. Schreibman, Dublin 1991, 36.
28. Anthony Cronin, Heritage Now: Irish Literature in the English Language, Dingle 1982, 155.
29. Brian Coffey, “Nightfall, Midwinter, Missouri ”, Field Day Anthology 3, 158.
30. Denis Devlin, “Lough Derg ”, ibid., 151.
31. Ibid., 152.
32. Beckett, Disjecta, 70.
33. Quoted by Susan Halperin, Austin Clarke: His Life and Works, Dublin
1974, 55.
34. Austin Clarke, Collected Poems, Dublin 1974, 189.
35. Ibid., 252.
36. Ibid., 318.
37. Synge, Plays 2, 4.
38. Beckett, Disjecta, 68.

UNDERDEVELOPMENT: INTERCHAPTER
1. See Terence Brown, Ireland: A Sociel and Cultural History l922-79, 14170.
2. For interesting perspectives see Joseph Lee and Gearoid Ó Tuathaigh, The Age of dk Vakru, Dublin 1982.
3. For the general cultural dimate in the war years and their aftermath see Kevin B. Nowlan and T. Desmond Williams eds., Ireland in the War Years and After 1939-51, Dublin 1969; Anthony Cronin, Dead as Doornails, Dublin 1976 and No Laughing Matter: The Life and Times of Flann O’Brien, London 1989; and John Ryan, Remembering How We Stood: Bohemian Dublin at the Mid-Century, Dublin 1975.
4. Louis MacNeice, Collected Poems, London 1966.
5. Ibid., 133, 131.
6. Louis MacNeice, The Strings are False, London 1965, 17.
7. MacNeice, Collected Poems, 164.
8. Letter to E. R. Dodds, quoted in Across a Roaring Hill, 99.
9. Quoted by Cronin, Heritage Nous 202.
10. For a fuller daboration of this thesis see Raymond Crotty, Ireland in Crisis: A Study in Capitalist Colonial Underdevelopment, Dingle 1986; and A Radicals Response, Dublin 1988.
11. Saamir Amin, Eurocentrism, tr. Russell Moore, London 1989, 112.
12. For an inspiring account of one family’s struggle, and of the prevailing temper of the times, see Noel Browne, Against the Tide, Dublin 1986.
13. Patrick Kavanagh, Collected Poems, 37.
14. Ibid., 52.
15. Patrick Kavanagh, Collected Poems, London 1973, 19.
16. Kavanagh, Collected Poems, xiv.
17. On Lemass, see Brian Farrell, Sean Lemass, Dublin 1983; and more generally J. J. Lee, Ireland 1912-1985: Politics and Society, Cambridge 1989, 329-410.
18. See John Montague, “The Impact of International Poetry on Irish Writing ”, Irish Poets in English, ed. Sean Lucy, Cork 1973, 14/f 58.

TWENTY-SEVEN: THE PERIPHERY AND THE CENTRE
1. Conor Cruise O’Brien, States of Ireland, 71-2.
2. Yeats, Explorations, 187.
3. Yeats, Collected Poems, 359.
4. Ibid., 152.
5. Ibid., 369.
6. John McGahern, High Ground, London 1985, 23.
7. Quoted in Maurice Goldring, Faith of Our Fathers: The Foundation of Irish National Ideology 1890-1920, Dublin 1982, 62ff.
8. Synge, Prose, 286.
9. Yeats, Explorations, 232. The passage was written in 1908.
10. Quoted by Frank O’Connor, The Big Fellow, London 1965, 20.
11. Tomas Ó Criomhthainn, An tOileánach, Dublin 1929, 51.
12. Synge, Prose, 95-6.
13. Synge, Collected Letters 2, 116-17.
14. David Fitzpatrick, Politics and Irish Life 1913-21, 234.
15 Synge, Prose, 132-3.
16 The text has been restored by Sean Ó Coileáin of Universiy College Cork in what promises to be a definitive edition.
17. Yeats, Preface to The King of the Great Clock Tower, Dublin 1934.
18. G. B. Shaw, The Matter with Ireland, 156.
19. Ibid., 136.
20. On the phenomenon see Alexander J. Humphreys, New Dubliners, London 1966.
21. John Meagher, quoted The Irish Times, 9 December 1986, 10.
22. Declan Kiberd, “The Moral Superiority of Rural Villages ”, The Irish Times, 9 December 1986, 10.
23. Fintan O’Toole, “Going West: The Country versus the City in Irish Writing ”, The Crane Ba& Vol. 9, No. 2, 1985, 111-16.
24. Ellmann, James Joyce, 169.
25. Ibid., 170.
26. Interview with present author, 12 November 1985 “Exhibit A ”, RTE Television.

TWENTY-EIGHT: FLANN O’BRIEN, MYLES, AND THE POOR MOUTH
David Krause, Introduction, The Dolmen Boueicault, Dublin 1964, 32.
2 Quoted by Anne Clissmann, Flann O’Brien: A Critical Introduction to His Writings, Dublin 1975.
3. Flann O’Brien, At Swim-Two-Birds, Harmondsworth 1967, 25.
4. Jack White, “Myles, Flann and Brian ”, Myks: Portraits of Brian O’Nolan, ed. Timothy O’Keeffe, London 1973, 63.
5. Brian O’Nolan, “De Me ”, New Ireland, March 1964, 41.
6. Clissmann, 3.
7. Myles na gCopaleen, An Beal Bocht, Dublin 1964, 30; Flann O’Brien, Tbe Poor Mouth, tr. Patrick Power, London 1978, 23. Hereafter BB, PM.
8. BB 23; PM 30-1.
9. BB 25; PM 34.
10. BB 42; PM 51-2.
11. James Joyce, Stephen Hero, London 1966, 54.
12. Brendan Kennelly, “An Beal Bocht ”, The Pleasures of Gaelic Literature, ed. J. Jordan, Dublin 1977.
13. BB 10; PM 14-15.
14. PM 63; BB 52.
15. L. Perry Curtis Jnr., Apes and Angels: The Irishman in Victorian Caricature, London 1971, 31.
16. Bernard Partridge, Punch, 24 December 1919; 18 February 1920; 13 October 1920.
17. PM 36; BB 27.
18. Curtin, 60.
19. PM 110-11; BB 98-9.
20. PM 100; BB 87.
21. PM 131 BB 8.
22. PM 78; BB 67.
23. James W. Redfield, Comparative Physiognomy, New York 1852, 253-8.
24. PM 891 BB 75.
25. Adarn Smith, The Wealth of Nations, 1, 201-2.
26. PM 98; BB 85.
27. Curtis, 102.
28. Myles na gCopaleen, “Cruiskeen Lawn ”, Irish Times, 30 July 1953
29. Ibid., 2 March 1966.
30. Curtis, 95.
31. Kevin O’Connor, The Irish in Britain, London 1974, 22.
32. Brian O’Nolan, “A Bash in the Tunnell ”, Envoy, 17, May 1951, 11
33. Niall Sheridan. “Brian, Flann and Myles ”, 40.
34. Ibid., 53.
35. R. N. Cooke, Centenary History of the Literary and Historical Sociey of University College Dublin, ed. J. Meenan, Kerry 1955, 242. For an extended consideration of wasted talent see Anthony Cronin, No Laughing Matter: The Life and Times of Flann O’Brien. London 1989.

TWENTY-NINE: BRENDAN BEHAN - THE EMPIRE WRITES BACK
l. Ted E. Boyle, Brendan Behan, New York 1969 31
2. Ulick O’Connor, Brendan Behan, London 1971, 61-85.
3. Malrtin Ó Cadhain in conversation with the present author, April 1969.
4. Ted E. Boyle, 63.
5. Quoted ibid., 64.
6. Brendan Behan, The Quare Fellous, London 1960, 29.
7. Colbert Kearney, The Writings of Brendan Behan, Dublin 1977, 75-6
8. Quare Fellow, 21.
9. Kearney, The Writings, 48.
10. See Mairtin Ó Cadhain, As an nGez6heann, Dublin 1973, 201
11. Synge, Prose, 95.
12. Quare Fellow, 74.
13. Ibid., 56.
14. Ibid., 57, 58.
15. Ted E. Boyle, 67.
16. Quare Fellow 86.
17. The references in the published version of Borstal Boy were toned down and made much less explicit than those in earlier versions: see Boyle, 104.
18 Brendan Behan, Borstal Boy, London 1961, 302-3.
19 Barbara Harlow, Resistance Literature, New York 1987, 143.
20. Quoted ibid., 152.
21. Borstal Boy, 379.
22. Ulick O’Connor, Brendan Bcban, 193.
23. Kearney, The Writings, 119.
24. Brian Behan, quoted in O’Connor, 208.
25. Brendan Behan, “An Giall ”, Poems and a Play in Irish, Dublin 1981.
26 Brendan Behan, The Hostage, London 1962, 76.
27 For an extended contrast see Richard Wall, “An Giall and The Hostage Compared ”, in E. H. Mikhail ed., The Art of Brendan Behan, London 1979, 138-46.
28. Quoted in O’Connor, 207.
29. Quoted Boyle, 86.
30. The Hostage, 61.
31. Ibid., 35.
32. Ibid., 33, 34.
33. Ibid., 5.
34. Ibid., 89.
35. Ibid., 61.
36. Ibid., 58.
37. Ibid., 52.
38. Ibid., 58.
40 Ibid 78 On this element of play-acting see Paul M. Levitt, “Hostages and History: Title as Dramatic Metaphor in The Hostage, The Art of Brendan Behan, 146-55.
41. The Hostage, 108, 108.
42. On this aspect see O’Connor, 96-9.

THIRTY: BECKETT’S TEXTS OF L.AUGHTER AND FORGETTING
1. Deirdre Bair, Samuel Beckett: A Biography, 26.
2. Brendan Kennelly, “My Dark Fathers ”, Field Day Anthology 3, 1361.
3. Vivian Mereier, Beckett/Beckett, London 1977, 37
4. Samuel Beckett, That Time,
5. Beckett, More Pricks Than Kicks, 146.
6. Beckett, Murphy, 28.
7. Ibid., 22.
8. Ibid., 47, 69, 111.
9. Ibid., 53.
10. Bair, 212.
11. Samuel Beckett, All That Fall, London 1965, 10-11.
12. Synge, Plays 2, 223.
13. Murphy, 6.
14. Bair, 241.
15. Murphy, 126.
16. Ibid., 151.
17. Ibid., 47, 10.
18. Ibid., 36, 101.
19. Dylan Thomas, New English Weekly, XII, 17 March 1938, 454-5.
20. Niklaus Gessner, Dic Unzulänglichkeit der Sprache, Zurich 1957, 32.
21. Samuel Beckett, Texts for Nothing, Collected Shorter Prose, London 1984, 74.
22. Samuel Beckett, Company, London 1982, 7.
23. My sources on this are Eleanor Knott, U. Caerwyn Williams and James Carney.
24. Company, 7.
25. Beckett, Molloy: Malone Dies: the Unnamable, 313.
26. Ibid., 159.
27. Hugh Kenner, A Readers Guide to Samuel Beckett, London 1973, 98, 100.
28. David Greene, lecture on “Bardic Poetry ”, Trinity College Dublin, 11 March 1967.
29. Samuel Beckett, First Love, London 1974, 17.
30. Beckett, Disjecta, 71.
31. See Ann Saddlemyer ed., Letters to Molly: John M. Synge to Maire O’Neill, Harvard 1971.
32. Synge, Prose, 202.
33. Yeats, Collected Poems, 350.
34. Beckett, Waiting for Godot, 10.
35. Ibid., 12.
36. Vivian Mereier Beckett/Beckett, 46.
37. Samuel Beckett, Happy Days, London 1966, 46.
38. Waiting for Godot, 65, 61.
39. Ibid., 14-15.
40. Quoted by Vincent Buckley, Memory Ireland, 98.
41. Vincent Buckley, ibid., 98.
42. Waiting for Godot, 88.
43. Ibid., 30.
44. Ibid., 33, 39.
45. Ibid., 31.
46. Ibid., 79.
47. Ibid., 68.
48. Ibid., 91.
49. Mereier, Beckett/Beckett, 53.
50. Endgame, 12, 34.
51. Ibid., 39.
52. Ibid., 47.
53. Ibid., 30.
54. Ibid., 12.
55. Ibid., 13.
56. Ibid., 13-14.
57. Ibid., 30.
58. Ibid., 38.
59. Waiting for Godot, 64.
60. Erich Fromm, The Fear of Freedom, London-1984,207.
61. Endgame, 45.
62. Fromm, The Fear of Freedom, 96.
63. Endgame, 51.
64. The text is reproduced in Eoin O’Brien, The Beckett Country, Dublin 1986, 337.

THIRTY-ONE: POST-COLONIAL IRELAND
1. Patrick Pearse, A Significant Irish Educationalist, 352.
2. Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 120.
3. D. H. Akenson, A Mirror to Kathleens Face, 76.
4. Paul Harrison, Inside the Third World, Harmondsworth 1981, 325ff.
5. Ngugi wa Thiong’o, Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature, London 1986, 97, 100.
6. Chinua Achebe, Hopes and Impediments, 27-8.
7. Quoted by Vincent Buckley, Memory Ireland, Victoria 1985, 175.
8. Achebe, Hopes and Impediments, 64.
9. Ngugi, Decolonizing the Mind, 89ff.
10. Paul Harrison, Inside the Third World, 317.
11. V. S. Naipaul, TheMimic-Men, Harmondsworth 1969, 146.
12. George Lamming, Caribbean Essays, ed. Andrew Salkey, London 1973, 11.
13. Achebe, Hopes and Impediments, 58, 84.
14. John Devitt, “English for the Irish ”, The Crane Bag, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1982, 106.
15. Daniel Corkery, Synge and Anglo-Irish Literature, Cork 1966, 14.
16. George Lamming, The Pleasures of Exile, 157.
17. Corkery, Synge and Anglo-Irish Literature, 15.
18. Gauri Viswanathan, “The Empire Within ”, Voice Literary Supplement, New York, January-February 1989, 22.
19. Lionel Trilling, “On the Teaching of Modern Literature ”, Beyond Culture: Essays on Literature and Learning, Oxford 1980, 3-27.
20. Corkery, Synge and Anglo-Irish Literature, 12.
21. Quoted by Gareth Griffiths, A Double Exile: African and West Indian Writing Between Two Countries, London 1978, 91.
22. Corkery, Synge and Anglo-Irish Literature, 11.
23. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, 180.
24. On this episode see Conor Cruise O’Brien, To Katanga and Back: A UN Case History, London 1965.
25. Conor Cruise O’Brien, Camus, London 1970, 85.
26. Achebe, Hopes and Impediments, 64.
27. V. S. Naipaul, India: A Wounded Civilization, Harmondsworth 1979, 148.
28. Conor Cruise O’Brien, Camus, 84.
29. Within these general constraints, O’Brien was sometimes capable of adopting a somewhat oedipal attitude to Ó Faolaun; see Donald Harman Akenson, Conor: A Biography, Montreal 1994, 120-3.
30. The phrase was used by Jorge Luis Borges, Labyrinths. See footnote 59, Chapter 2.

RECOVERY AND RENEWAL: INTERCHAPTER
1. An excellent source on which I have repeatedly drawn is Fergal Tobin, The Best of Decades: Ireland in the 1960s, Dublin 1984.
2. Ibid., 66.
3. The speaker was Brian Trevaskis, of the University Philosophical Society, Trinity College, Dublin in 1968.
4. On television see Lelia Doolan, Jack Dowling and Bob Quinn, Sit Down and Be Counted, Dublin 1969. For its effect on Irish language policy see Terence Brown, Ireland: A Soeial and Cultural History, 271ff.
5. Tobin, 30.
6. On these developments, see Declan Kiberd, editorial, The Crane Bag: Irish Language and Culture - An tEagra’n Gaelach Vol. 5. No. 2~ 1981; and passim.
7. Gearoid Ó Tuathaigh, historian; quoted by Brown, 269.
8. Report of the Committee on Irish Language Attitudes and Resevreh, Dublin 1975, 24.
9. J. J. Lee, Ireland 1912-1985: Politins and Societ3g 658-74.
10. Jeremiah Newman, “Ireland in the Eighties ” Our Responsibility ”, Christus Rex, Vol. XXV, No. 3, 1971, 190.
11. On this, see Peadar Kirby, Ireland and Latin America: Links and Lessons, Dublin 1992; and Has Ireland a Future? Cork 1988.
12. See Fintan O’Toole, A Mass for Jesse James, Dublin 1989.
13. Tobin, 196.
14. For a mordant southern viewpoint, see Conor Cruise O’Brien, States of Ireland, esp. 147-294.
15. His subsequent book was Richard Rose, Northern Ireland: A Time of Choice, London 1976.
16. On the Northern Ireland “Troubles ” see Tim Pat Coogan, The IRA, London 1995; and J. J. Lee, Ireland 1912-1985, 411-57; and Dermot Keogh, Twentieth Century Ireland, Dublin 1994, 295-388.
17. Fionnuala O’Connor, In Search of a State, Belfast 1993.
18. Raymond Crotty, Ireland in Crisis, see back.
19. Michael O’Sullivan, Mary Robinson, Dublin 1993.

THIRTY-TWO: UNDER PRESSURE
1. Letter to Thomas MacGreevy, 31 January 1938.
2. Patrick Kavanagh, Colked Poems, 132.
3. John Montague, Selected Poems, Winston-Salem 1982, 62.
4. The phrase is Augustine Martin’s; for the surrounding debate, see issue of Studies in the period 1965.
5. Brown, Ireland: A Social and Cultural History; 297.
6. Irving Howe, “The Idea of the Modern ”, Literary Modkrnisrn, ed. Howe, New York 1968, 13.
7. Thomas Kinsella, Downstream, Dublin 1962, 48.
8. Daniel Bell, The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism, London 1979, esp. 33-174.
9. Thomas Kinsella, Nightwalker and Other Poems, Dublin 1968, 59.
10. Thomas Kinsella, “Another September ”, Field Day Anthology 3, 1341.
11. “Baggot Street Deserta ”, ibid., 1342.
12. John Montague, Selected Poems, 10.
13. Richard Murphy, “Casement’s Funeral ”, Field Day Anthology 3, 1338.
14. Thomas Kinsella, The Irish Writer, MLA New York 1966, 58-9.
15. Michael Hartnett, A Farewell to English, Dublin 1978, 64.
16. Thomas Kinsella, “The Divided Mind ”, Irish Poets in English, 209.
17. Sean Ó Riordáin, “A Ghaeilge im Pheannsa ”, Brosna, Dublin 1964, 9-10.
18. Sean Ó Riordáin, ibid.
19. Corkery, Synge and Anglo-Irish Literature, 6, 14.
20. Sean Ó Riordáin, “Do Dhomhnall Ó Coreora ”, Eireaball Spideoíge, Dublin 1952, 51.
21. Seamus Deane, “Unhappy and At Home: Interview with Seamus Heaney ”, The Crane Bag, 1, No. 1, Spring 1977, 64.
22. Anthony Heaney, “A Gift for Being in Touch ”, Quest, January-February 1978, Vol. 2, No. 1, 42.
23. Seamus Heaney, Death of a Naturalist, London 1966, 23.
24. Seamus Heaney, North, London 1975, 51.
25. David Lloyd, who first made this connection, discusses it in a very critical essay, “Pap for the Dispossessed: Seamus Heaney and the Poetics of Identity ”, Anomalous States: Irish Writing and the Post-Colonial Moment, Dublin 1993, 13-40.
26. Seamus Heaney, North, 37-8.
27. Denis Donoghue, “Now and in Ireland: the Literature of Trouble ”, Hibernia (Dublin), 11 May 1978, 17.
28. Heaney, North, 73.
29. Seamus Heaney, Station Island, London 1984, 83.
30. Ibid., 98.
31. Ibid., 102.
32. Ibid., 93.
33. Seamus Heaney, Seeing Things, London 1991, 62.
34. Ibid., 21.
35. Ibid., 8
36. Vincent Buckley, Memory Ireland, 105-6.
37. Derek Mahon, Poems 1962-78, Oxford 1979, 69*
38. Ibid., 4.
39. Ibid., 58.
40. Field Day Anthology 3, 1384.
41. Ciaran Carson, Field Day Anthology 3, 1406.
42. Maire Mhac an tSaoi, An Cion go dtí Seo. Dublin 1987, 81. Translation by the poet.
43. Ibid., 20. Translation by Declan Kiberd
44. Nuala ni Dhomhnaill, Pharoah’s Daughter, Oldcastle 1990, 36, 38.
45. Ibid., 130, 131.
46. Ibid., 142, 143.
47. Ibid., 154, 155.
48. Eavan Boland, Field Day Anthology, 3, 13954.
49. Eavan Boland, “A Kind of Scar: The Woman Poet in a National Tradition ”, A Dozen Lips, Dublin 1994, 80-1.
50. Ibid., 89, 91.
51. Edna Longley, “From Cathleen to Anorexia: The Breakdown of Irelands ”, A Dozen Lips, 177, 180.
52. Ibid., 178.
53. Eavan Boland, “Mise Eire ”, A Dozen Lips, 72.
54. Eavan Boland, “The Emigrant Irish ”, Field Day Anthology 3, 1397-8.
55. The Selected Paul Durean, Belfast 1985, 26.
56. Dermot Bolger, The Journey Home, London 1990, 7-8; The Womans Daughter, London 1991.
57. In the wake of the 75th anniversary of the 1916 Rising, Dermot Bolger wrote articles in The Sunaay Press strongly promoting this line.
58. Roddy Doyle, The Barrytown Trilogy, Secker and Warburg, London 1992, 13.
59. Paul Muldoon, Field Day Anthology 3, 1414-15.

THIRTY-THREE: FRIEL TRANSLATING
1. See Benedict Kiely, Poor Scholar, London 1947, 47.
2. For sudh a critique see Fintan O’Toole, “Island of Saints and Silicon ”, Cultural Contexts and Literary Idioms in Contemporary Irish Literature, ed. Michael Kenneally, Gerrards Cross 1988, 15-18.
3. P. J. Dowling, The Hedge Schools of Ireland, Cork 1968.
4. Michel Foucault, “The Order of Discourse ”, Unying the Text: A Post-Structuralist Reader, London 1981, 53.
5. On this see Maureen Wall, “The Decline of the Irish Language ”, A View of the Irish Language, 81-90.
6. Report of the Committee on Irish Language Attitudes and Research, 293-305.
7. Programme note to Translations, Field Day 1980.
8. Seamus Heaney, Wintering Out, London 1972, 48.
9. Brian Friel, Translations, London 1981, 51-2.
10. John Montague, Selected Poems, 108.
11. Friel, Translations, 42.
12. Ibid., 67.
13. Ibid., 66-7.
14. Station Island, 66.
15. Translations, 43.
16. On this see Walter Benjarnin, Illuminations, 81ff.
17. John Dryden, “On Translation ”, Theories of Translation, eds. R. Schutte and J. Biguenet, Chicago 1992, 28.
18. Edward Said, Orientalism, 67.
19. Ibid., 93, 272.
20. Translations, 40.
21. Ibid., 43.
22. Ibid., 66.
23. Ibid., 42.
24. Ibid., 42.
25. See especially some of the essays collected in Celtic Revivals.

THIRTY-FOUR: TRANSLATING TRADITION
1. Octavio Paz, “Translation: Literature and Letters ”, Theories of Translation, 160.
2. Jacques Derrida, “Des Tours de Babel ”, Theories of Translation, 219.
3. Macaulay, Prose and Poetry, 722.
4. Charles Trevelyan, On the Education of the Peopk of India, London 1838, Chapter 2.
5. William Jones, A Grammar of the Persian Language, London 1771, vii.
6. Friedridh Nietzsche, “On the Problem of Translatior;’, Theories of Translation, 69-70.
7. George Steiner, Affer Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation, London 1975, 321.
8. On this see Declan Kiberd, Synge and the Irish Language, 54-94.
9. Renato Poggioli, “The Added Artificer ”, On Translation, ed. Reuben A. Brower, Harvard 1959, 142.
10. See Declan Kiberd, “George Moore agus an Ghaeilge ”, Idir Dhá Chultúr, Dublin 1993, 129-30.
11. Walter Benjamin, Illuminations, 80.
12. Godfrey Lienhardt, “Modes of Thought ”, The Institutions of Primitive Society, Oxford 1961, 97.
13. The image is from Benjamin’s essay on translation.
14. Marcel Proust, Remembrance of Things Past, Book 3, 903.
15. Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Advantage and Disadvantage of History for Life, Trans. I. Ellis, Carbondale 1984, 35.
16. Benjamin, Illuminations, 257.
17. Ibid., 259.
18. Ibid., 70.
19. See David Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country, Cambridge 1985, 250.
20. See Declan Kiberd, “Brian Friel’s Faith Healer ”, Irish Writers and Society at Large, Gerrards Cross 1985, 106-21.
21. Brian Friel, Making History, London 1989, 9.
22. Ibid., 65.
23. John Banville, with Ronan Sheehan and Francis Stuart, “Novelists on the Novel ”, The Crane Bag, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1979, 84.
24. John Banville, Doctor Copernicus: A Novel, London 1976, 94.
25. Banville, “Novelists on the Novel ”, 79-80.
26. In conversation with the present writer, October 1985.
27. Friedrich Schleiermacher, “On the Different Methods of Translating ”, Theories of Translation, 46-7.
28. Derrida, Theories of Translation, 218-27.
29. Banville, Doctor Copernicus, 27.

THIRTY-FIVE: IMAGINING IRISH STUDIES
1. Erasmus to Leo X, I February 1516, letter 384, Correspondence, 3, 221-2.
2. Said, Orientalism, 328.
3. Synge, Prose, 60.
4. R. F. Foster, Modern Ireland 1600-1972, London 1988, 453, 453.
5. See, for instance, the strictures of Brendan Bradshaw, “Nationalism and Historical Scholarship in Modern Ireland ”, Interpreting Irish History: The Debate on Historical Revisionism, Dublin 1994, 191-216.
6. See Kevin O’Neill, “Revisionist Milestone ”, Interpreting Irish History, 217-21.
7. Ronan Fanning (quoting Bernard Lewis), “The Great Enchantment: Uses and Abuses of Modern Irish History’, Interpreting Irish History, 156.
8. J. J. Lee, Ireland: Politics and Sociey 191246, 390ff.
9. Crotty, Ireland in Crisis, Dingle 1986.
10. Some hopeful trends are recorded by Alvin Jackson, “Unionist History’, Interpreting Irish History, 25348.
11. See Seamus Deane, “Remembering the Irish Future’, The Crane Bag, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1984, 81-92.
12. Padraig Ó Riagain, Micheal Ó Gliasain, National Survey on Languages 1993: Preliminary Report, Dublin 1994, esp. 5-15.
13. Sean de Freine, The Great Silence, esp. 61-74.
14. Ibid., 1444.
15. Ibid., 188-90.
16. A poll in Sunday Independent in late 1993 showed that almost 80% of the Republic’s citizens had no wish to coerce unionists into a united Ireland.
17. Translations, 67.

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