Margaret Kelleher, ‘Prose Writing and Drama in English, 1830-1890: from Catholic Emancipation to the Fall of Parnell’, in Cambridge History of Irish Literature (Cambridge UP 2006), Vol. I [Chap. 11], p.449-99.

The notes follow the numeration of the original at all points. Some minor changes have been introduced to the method of citation in comformity with other files in the RICORSO Library of Irish Literary Criticism.

1. Maria Edgeworth to Michael Pakenham Edgeworth (19 Feb. 1834); reproduced in Frances Edgeworth, A Memoir of Maria Edgeworth, 3 vols. (priv. 1867), Vol. III, pp.87-88.
2. Lady Morgan [Sydney Owenson], The Book of the Boudoir, 2 vols. (London: Henry Colburn
1829), Vol. I, p.vii.
3. Yeats to Matthew Russell, [early] December 1889; reprinted in The Collected Letters of W B. Yeats, Vol. 1: 1865-1895, ed. John Kelly (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1986), pp.198-200.
4. Thomas Flanagan, ‘Literature in English, 1801-91’, in A New History of Ireland, ed. W E. Vaughan, ed. Col. V: “Ireland under the Union, I: 1801-1870” (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1989), pp.482-522; p.509.
5. See for example Rosa Mulholland, ‘Wanted an Irish Novelist’, in Irish Monthly, 19 ( July 1891),
6. See David Lloyd, Anomalous States: Irish Writing and the Post-Colonial Moment (Dublin: Lilliput 1993), pp.125-62; Terry Eagleton, Heathcliff and the Great Hunger: Studies in Irish Culture (London: Verso 1995), pp.145-225.
7. W. B. Yeats, ‘First Principles’, in Samhain, 7 (Nov. 1908), p.8; reprinted in Explorations (1962; London: Macmillan 1989), pp.231-44.
8. Irish Monthly Magazine, 1, 5 (September 1832), p.333.
9. W. J. McCormack, ‘The Intellectual Revival (1830-1850)’, in The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, gen. ed. Seamus Deane, 3 vols. (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 1, pp.1173-1300, p.1200.
10. ‘Past and Present State of Literature in Ireland’, Dublin University Magazine [henceforth DUM], 9 (March 1837), p.371; W. J. McCormack has attributed this essay to DUM editor Isaac Butt; see McCormack, ‘The Intellectual Revival’, p.1200.
11. William Carleton, ‘General Introduction’, Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry [new edn.], 2 vols. (Dublin & London: Curry & Orr 1843-44), 1, p.v.
12. Charles Benson, ‘Printers and Booksellers in Dublin 1800-1850’, in Spreading the Word: The Distribution Networks of Print, 1550-1850, ed. Robin Myers and Michael Harris (Winchester: St Paul’s Bibliographies 1990), pp.47-59, p.57.
13. McCormack, ‘The Intellectual Revival’, p.1176.
14. DUM, 6 (December 1835), p.710; cited by Wayne Hall, Dialogues in the Margin: A Study of the Dublin University Magazine (Washington, DC: CUA Press 1999), pp.15-16.
15. DUM, 41 (January 1853), p.3; cited in Hall, Dialogues, p.14.
16. Norman Vance, Irish Literature since 1800 (London: Longman, 2002), p.78.
17. Hall, Dialogues, p.io8.
18. See Barbara Hayley, ‘A Reading and Thinking Nation: Periodicals as the Voice of Nineteenth-Century Ireland’, in Three Hundred Years of Irish Periodicals, ed. Hayley and Enda McKay (Mullingar: Lilliput Press 1987), pp.29-48; pp.37-38.
19. Cited in Hayley’s invaluable ‘British Critical Reception of Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Fiction’, in Literary Interrelations: Ireland, England and the World, ed. Wolfgang Zach & Heinz Kosok, 3 vols. (Tubingen: G. Narr 1987), Vol. I, pp.39-50, p.39.
20. Ina Ferris, The Romantic National Tale and the Question of Ireland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p.131.
21. The phrase is Katie Trumpener’s; see her Bardic Nationalism: The Romantic Novel and the British Empire (Princeton UP 1997), p.17.
22. Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine, 2, 11 (February 1833), p.554; cited in Hayley, ‘British Critical Reception’, p.46.
23. William Carleton, Autobiography [1896; new edn.] (Belfast: White Row Press 1996), pp.18–19. Carleton’s unfinished autobiography was first published, posthumously, in 1896, along with an account of his later life and writings by D. J. O’Donoghue. This first edition, published by Downey, included an introduction by Frances Cashel Hoey; later editions featured forewords by Patrick Kavanagh (1968) and, more recently, by the novelist Benedict Kiely (1996).
24. Cited by Christopher Morash, Writing the Irish Famine (Oxford: OUP 1995), p.157. As Morash shows, Carleton’s family may be better classified as ‘solid “middle-rate farmers” … who enjoyed what would have been a comfortable standard of living for the period’ (p. 158).
25. See Norman Vance, Irish Literature: A Social History (1990; Dublin: Four Courts Press 1999), pp.148-49.
26. Maureen Keane, Mrs S. C. Hall: A Literary Biography (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1997), pp.4-5.
27. Riana O’Dwyer, ‘Women’s Narratives, 1800-1840’, in Bourke et al., Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, Vol. V, pp.833-94; p.847.
28. Anna Maria Hall, The Whiteboy, 2 vols. [1845; facs. rep.] (NY: Garland Press 1979), Vol. II, p.8.
29. Martineau visited Ireland for four months in 1831; in 1852 she returned on a commisson
for the Daily News paper. The 1852 letters are republished in Glenn Hooper, ed. Letters from Ireland: Harriet Martineau (Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2oo1).
30. Charlotte Tonna, The Rockites (London: Nisbet 1829), pp.1-2.
31. Thomas Carlyle, ‘Chartism’ (1839); reprinted in Thomas Carlyle, English and Other Critical Essays (London: Dent 1964), pp.182, 185.
32. Charles Cavan Duffy, Conversations with Carlyle (London: Sampson Low, 1892), p.5.
33. Carlyle, ‘Chartism’, p.181.
34. Amy E. Martin, ‘Blood Transfusions: Constructions of Irish Racial Difference, the English Working Class, and Revolutionary Possibility in the Work of Carlyle and Engels’, in Victorian Literature and Culture, 32, 1 (2004), pp.83-102; p.92.
35. Gustave de Beaumont, Ireland: Social, Political and Religious, trans. W C. Taylor, 2 vols.
(London: Bentley, 1839), I, pp.276-87.
36. Ibid., Vol. II, p.115.
37. De Beaumont, Ireland, I, p.268. J. G. Kohl, Travels in Ireland (1843; trans. London: Bruce
and Wyld, 1844), pp.86-87.
38. Samuel and Anna Hall, Ireland: Its Scenery and Character, 3 vols. (London: How and
Parsons, 1841-3), 1, p.iv.
39. Headquarters of the London book trade.
40. William M. Thackeray, The Irish Sketchbook 1842 (1843; Gloucester: Alan Sutton 1990), p.250.
41. William Carleton, The Black Prophet (1847; Shannon: Irish Academic Press 1972), pp.220-1 [recte Irish University Press].
42. Morash, Writing the Irish Famine, p.186.
43. See Margaret Kelleher, The Feminization of Famine: Expressions of the Inexpressible? (Cork: Cork UP; Duke UP 1997), Chapter 2.
44. Transactions of the Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends during the Famine in
Ireland, in 1846 and 1847
(Dublin: Hodges and Smith, 1852), p.38.
45. Trollope’s first two novels set in Ireland were The Macdermots of Ballycloran (1847) and The Kellys and the O’Kellys (1848), both commercial failures; his other Irish novels were An Eye for an Eye (1879) and the unfinished Landleaguers (1883).
46. Anthony Trollope, Castle Richmond [1860] (Oxford: World’s Classics 1989), p.489.
47. Margaret Brew, The Chronicles of Castle Cloyne, 3 vols. [1884; facs. rep.] (NY: Garland Press 1979), Vol. I, p.viii.
48. Nation, 7 October 1843, p.826.
49. See Hall, Dialogues in the Margin, pp.108-13.
50. Tony Bareham, ‘Introduction’ to Bareham, ed. Charles Lever: New Evaluations (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1991), p.9.
51. John Sutherland, Victorian Novelists and Publishers (Chicago UP 1976), pp.162-3; cited in S. P. Haddelsey, Charles Lever. The Lost Victorian (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 2000), p.17.
52. The novel is in turn loosely based on the biography of Mary Martin, the ‘Princess of Connemara’, whose family, known for its humanitarian work, was bankrupted during the famine; Mary, author of the novel Julia Howard (1850), died in France in 1850.
53. Charles Lever, Lord Kilgobbin [1872] (Belfast: Appletree Press 1992), p.170.
54. Ibid., p.415.
55. See Bareham, ‘Introduction’, pp.7-9.
56. W B. Yeats, ‘Popular Ballad Poetry of Ireland’ (1889), reprinted in Uncollected Prose by W. B. Yeats, ed. John P. Frayne, 2 vols. (London: Macmillan 1970), 1, pp.146-62, p.162.
57. See A. Norman Jeffares, ‘Yeats and the Wrong Lever’, in Jeffares, ed. Yeats, Sligo and Ireland (Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble 1980), pp.98-III, p.110.
58. Lever, preface to The Fortunes of Glencore (1857); cited by Bareham, ‘Introduction’, pp.11-12.
59. ‘Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter’, in DUM, 13 (May 1839), p.587.
60. Le Fanu, The Cock and Anchor, 3 vols. (1845; reprinted New York: Garland Press 1979), 1, pp.133-4.
61. Ibid: I, p.20.
62. W. J. McCormack, Sheridan Le Fanu and Victorian Ireland (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1980; 2nd edn, Dublin: Lilliput Press 1991), p.253.
63. Le Fanu, The House by the Churchyard (1863; reprinted Belfast: Appletree Press 1992), p.3.
64. Ibid., p.343.
65. Elizabeth Bowen, preface to Uncle Silas (London: Cresset Press 1947), reproduced in
The Mulberry Tree: Writings of Elizabeth Bowen, selected and introduced by Hermione Lee (London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1986), p.101.
66. Thomas Kilroy, introduction to 1992 reprint of The House by the Churchyard, p.xiii.
67. See R. F. Foster, ‘Protestant Magic: W B. Yeats and the Spell of Irish History’, in Foster,
Paddy and Mr Punch: Connections in Irish and English History (London: Penguin 1993), pp. 212-32; Seamus Deane, Strange Country: Modernity and Nationhood in Irish Writing since 1790 (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1997), p.85; Margot Gayle Backus, The Gothic Family Romance: Heterosexuality, Child Sacrifice, and the Anglo-Irish Colonial Order (Durham, NC: Duke University Press 1999), pp.109-43.
68. See Margaret Kelleher, ‘Charlotte Riddell’s A Struggle for Fame: The Field of Women’s Literary Production’, in Colby Quarterly, 36, 2 (2000), pp.116-31.
69. Trollope, Castle Richmond, pp.1-2.
70. Mulholland, ‘Wanted an Irish Novelist’, p.369.
71. See Helen Black, Notable Women Authors of the Day (Glasgow: Bryce, 1893), p.113.
72. Mulholland, ‘Wanted an Irish Novelist’, pp.369-70.
73. John Stuart Mill, ‘England and Ireland’ (1868), rep. in John M. Robson, ed., Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, 33 vols. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1982), Vol. VI, pp.507, 508.
74. Ibid., pp.529, 532.
75. Matthew Arnold, On the Study ofCeltic Literature (London: Smith & Elder, 1867), pp.103, 181.
76. Seamus Deane, A Short History of Irish Literature (London: Hutchinson 1986), p.85; Deane, Celtic Revivals (1985; Winston-Salem, NC: Wake Forest University Press 1987), p.22.
77. J. A. Froude, preface to Thomas Carlyle, Reminiscences of My Irish journey in 1849 (London: Sampson Low, 1882), p.vii.
78. Letters, Speeches and Tracts on Irish Affairs by Edmund Burke, collected and arranged by Matthew Arnold (London: Macmillan, 1881), preface, Republished as Irish Affairs: Edmund Burke, with an introduction by Conor Cruise O’Brien (London: Cresset,
79. See R. Barry O’Brien, ed. Best Hundred Irish Books by ‘Historicus’ (Dublin: privately printed by the Freeman’s Journal, 1886), p.29.
80. Mary Jean Corbett, Allegories of Union in Irish and English Writing, 1790–1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p.181.
81. On the popularity of Kickham’s Knocknagow, see R. V Comerford, Charles J. Kickham: A Study in Irish Nationalism and Literature (Dublin: Wolfhound 1979), pp.207-11.
82. James H. Murphy, Catholic Fiction and Social Reality in Ireland, 1873-1922 (Westport, CT: Greenwood 1997), pp.79-84.
83. Comerford, Charles J. Kickham, p.210.
84. Irish Monthly, 14 (1886), p.201.
85. See Eliza Keary, Memoir of Annie Keary (London: Macmillan, 1882).
86. More New Arabian Nights: The Dynamiter (1885) by Robert Louis and Fanny Stevenson is the most famous of these works; my thanks to Deaglán Ó Donghaile, TCD, for this reference.
87. Review of A Boycotted Household, in Athenaeum, No. 2812 (17 September 1881), p.365.
88. Nancy Armstrong, Desire and Domestic Fiction: A Political History of the Novel (Oxford: Oxford University Press 1987), p.9.
89. Review of Heart of Erin, in Athenaeum, No. 2847 (20 May 1882), pp.632-33.
90. William E. Gladstone, Special Aspects of the Irish Question: A Series of Reflections in and since 1886 (1892; London: The Daily Chronicle 1912), p.151.
91. Cited in Betty Brewer, ‘”She Was a Part of It”: Emily Lawless, 1845-1913’, Eire-Ireland 18, 4 (1983), pp.119-31, p.123.
92. W B. Yeats, ‘Irish National Literature, II: Contemporary Prose Writers’, The Bookman (August 1895); reprinted in Frayne, Uncollected Prose, Vol. 1, p.369.
93. Emily Lawless, Hurrish (1886; republished Belfast: Appletree Press 1992), pp.32, 3.
94. Gerardine Meaney, ‘Decadence, Degeneration and Revolting Aesthetics: The Fiction of Emily Lawless and Katherine Cecil Thurston’, in Colby Quarterly, 36, 2 (2000), pp.157-75.
95. See Adrian Frazier’s invaluable biography, George Moore: 1852-1933 (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2000).
96. Ibid., pp.xiii, 106-16, 151-3.
97. See George Moore, Parnell and His Island [1887], ed. Carla King [Dublin Classics in Irish History series] (University College Dublin Press 2004).
98. Ibid., pp.118, 132-6.
99. Letter to Unwin, 14 January 1902; cited in Julian Moynaghan, Anglo-Irish: The Literary Imagination in a Hyphenated Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press 1995), p.160.
100. George Moore, A Drama in Muslin (1886; republished Belfast: Appletree Press 1992), p.159. Cork Hill is one of the entrances to Dublin Castle.
101. Charles Read and T. P. O’Connor, eds. The Cabinet Of Irish Literature, 4 vols. (London and Glasgow: Blackie, 1879-8o), IV, p.296.
102. Robert Lee Woolf, introduction to new edition of May Laffan (Hartley), Flitters, Tatters and the Counsellor and Other Sketches (1881; New York: Garland Press 1989), p.vii.
103. Thackeray, Irish Sketchbook, A 7.
104. Anon., History of the Theatre Royal Dublin (Dublin: Ponsonby 1870), p.117.
105. John William Cole, ‘Dramatic Writers of Ireland, I’, in DUM, 45 (January 1855), p.39. The eleven-part series was published in DUM, 45-47, between January 1855 and March 1856.
106. See Christopher Morash, A History of Irish Theatre 1601 2000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp.81-82.
107. Christopher Fitz-Simon, The Irish Theatre (London: Thames & Hudson 1983), pp.90-93.
108. R. M. Levey and J. O’Rorke, Annals of the Theatre Royal, Dublin (Dublin: Dollard, 1880), p.34.
109. Ibid., p.53.
110. Martin Meisel, Shaw and the Nineteenth-Century Theatre ((Oxford and Princeton: Oxford University Press and Princeton University Press 1963), pp.3-6.
111. Anon., History of the Theatre Royal, p.92.
112. Cole, ‘Dramatic Writers of Ireland, XI’, DUM 47 (March 1856),
113. Ibid., p.370. R 364.
114. Morash, Irish Theatre, p.82. Drama’ in Jacqueline
115. Ibid., pp.85-6.
116. Heinz Kosok, ‘The Image of Ireland in Nineteenth-Century Drama', in Jacqueline Genet and Richard Allen Cave, eds. Perspectives of Irish Drama and Theatre, Irish Literary Studies XXXIII (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1991), 50-67 p.66.
117. Morash, Irish Theatre, pp.87-93.
118. Stephen Watt, Joyce, O’Casey and the Irish Popular Theatre (Syracuse NY: Syracuse, I University Press 1991), p.53.
119. See Cheryl Herr, For the Land TheyLoved: Irish Political Melodramas, 1890-1925 (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1991).
120. See Stephen Watt, ‘The Plays of Hubert O’Grady’, in Journal of Irish Literature, 14, 1 (1985), pp.3-13; this issue also includes the republication from manuscripts of two of O’Grady’s plays, Emigration and Famine, edited by Watt.
121. See Margaret Kelleher, ‘“Wanted an Irish Novelist”: The Critical Decline of the Nineteenth-Century Novel’, in Jacqueline Belanger, ed. The Irish Novel in the Nineteenth Century: Facts and Fictions (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005), pp.187-201.
122. O’Brien, Best Hundred Irish Books, pp.9-10.
123. Yeats to Russell, [early] December 1889; see note 3 above.
124. Stephen Gwynn, ‘Novels of Irish Life in the Nineteenth Century’ (1897), reprinted in his Irish Books and Irish People (Dublin: Talbot 1919), p.8.
125. Maurice Egan, ‘On Irish Novels’ (1904), reprinted in Justin McCarthy editor in chief, Irish Literature, 10 vols. (Philadelphia: Morris 1904), v, p.vii.
126. See Joe Cleary, ‘The Nineteenth-Century Irish Novel: Some Notes and Speculations on Literary Historiography’, in Belanger, ed. The Irish Novel, pp.202-21.

Anon., History of the Theatre Royal Dublin, Dublin: Ponsonby, 1870.
Backus, Margot Gayle, The Gothic Family Romance: Heterosexuality, Child Sacrifice, and the Anglo-Irish Colonial Order, Durham, NC: Duke University Press 1999.
Bareham, Tony, ed. Charles Lever: New Evaluations, Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1991. Belanger, Jacqueline, ed. The Irish Novel in the Nineteenth Century: Facts and Fictions, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005.
Benson, Charles, ‘Printers and Booksellers in Dublin 1800-185o’, in Robin Myers and Michael Harris, eds. Spreading the Word: The Distribution Networks of Print, 150-1850, Winchester: St Paul’s Bibliographies 1990, Pp. 47-59.
Carleton, William, Autobiography, first published 1896, new edition Belfast: White Row Press 1996, with a foreword by Benedict Kiely.
Comerford, R.V, Charles J. Kickham: A Study in Irish Nationalism and Literature, Dublin: Wolfhound 1979.
Corbett, Mary Jean, Allegories of Union in Irish and English Writing, 1790-1870, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Deane, Seamus, Strange Country: Modernity and Nationhood in Irish Writing since 1790, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1997.
Eagleton, Terry, Heathdiff and the Great Hunger: Studies in Irish Culture, London: Verso 1995. Flanagan, Thomas, ‘Literature in English, 1801-91’, in W E. Vaughan, ed. New History of Ireland, Vol. V: Ireland under the Union I, 1801-1870, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1989, pp. 482-522.
Frazier, Adrian, George Moore: 1852-1933, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000.
Hall, Wayne, Dialogues in the Margin: A Study of the Dublin University Magazine, Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press 1999.
Hayley, Barbara, ‘British Critical Reception of Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Irish Fiction’, in Wolfgang Zach and Heinz Kosok, eds. Literary Interrelations: Ireland, England and the World, 3 vols. Tubingen: G. Narr 1987, 1, pp.39-50.
Hayley, Barbara, Carleton’s Traits and Stories and the Nineteen the CenturyAnglo-Irish Tradition, Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1983.
Hayley, Barbara, ‘A Reading and Thinking Nation: Periodicals as the Voice of Nineteenth-Century Ireland’, in Barbara Hayley and Enda McKay, eds. Three Hundred Years of Irish Periodicals, Mullingar: Lilliput Press 1987, pp.29-48.
Hooper, Glenn, ed. The Tourist’s Gaze: Travellers to Ireland, 1800-2000, Cork: Cork University Press, 2002.
Keane, Maureen, Mrs S. C. Hall: A Literary Biography, Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1997.
Kelleher, Margaret, 'The Cabinet of Irish Literature: A Historical Perspective on Irish Anthologies’, Eire-Ireland, 38, 3-4 (2003), pp.68-89.
Kelleher, Margaret, The Feminization of Famine: Expressions of the Inexpressible?, Cork and Durham, NC: Cork University Press and Duke University Press 1997.
'Women’s Fiction, 1845-1900’, in A. Bourke, S. Kilfeather, M. Luddy, M. Mac Curtain, G. Meaney, M. Ni Dhonnchadha, M. O’Dowd and C. Wills, eds. Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, vols. IV and V: Irish Women’s Writing and Traditions, Cork: Cork University Press, 2002, V, pp.924-75.
Kosok, Heinz, ‘The Image of Ireland in Nineteenth-Century Drama’, in Jacqueline Genet and Richard Allen Cave, eds. Perspectives of Irish Drama and Theatre, Irish Literary Studies XXXIII, Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1991, pp.50-67.
Laird, Heather, Subversive Law in Ireland: 1879-1920, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005.
Levey, R. M. and J. O’Rorke, Annals of the Theatre Royal, Dublin, Dublin: Dollard, 1880.
Lloyd, David, Anomalous States: Irish Writing and the Post-Colonial Moment, Dublin: Lilliput, 1993.
McCormack, W J., Ascendancy and Tradition in Anglo-Irish History 1789-1939, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1985; revised and enlarged edition: From Burke to Beckett: Ascendancy, Tradition and Betrayal in Anglo-Irish Literary History from 1789 to 1939, Cork: Cork University Press 1994.
McCormack, W J., 'The Intellectual Revival (183o-1850)’, in Seamus Deane, general ed. The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, 3 vols. Derry: Field Day 1991, 1, pp.1173-1300.
McCormack, W J., Sheridan Le Fanu and Victorian Ireland, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1980; second edition Dublin: Lilliput Press 1991.
Morash, Christopher, A History of Irish Theatre 1601-2000, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Morash, Christopher, Writing the Irish Famine, Oxford: Oxford University Press 1995.
Murphy, James H., Catholic Fiction and Social Reality in Ireland, 1873-1922, Westport, CT: Greenwood 1997.
Murphy, James H., Ireland: A Social, Cultural and Literary History, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2002.
O’Dwyer, Riana, ‘Women’s Narratives, 1800-1840% in Bourke et al., Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, v, pp.833-94.
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Vance, Norman, Irish Literature: A Social History, Dublin: Four Courts Press 1990; new edition 1999.
Vance, Norman, Irish Literature since 1800, London: Longman, 2002.

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