Rolf Loeber & Magda Loeber, with Anne Mullin Burnham, A Guide to Irish Fiction, 1650-1900 (Dublin: Four Courts Press 2006)

1. J. Belanger (ed.), Irish novel; S. Deane, Strange country (Oxford, 1997); S. Deane, A short history of Irish literature (Notre Dame, 1986); Murphy; Field Day; Field Day 2; J. Eagleton, Scholars and rebels in nineteenth Ireland (London, 1999); I. Ferris, The romantic national tale and the question of Ireland (Cambridge, 2002), J. Leerssen, Remembrance and Imagination. Patterns in the historical and literal representation of Ireland in the nineteenth century (Notre Dame, 1997); N. Vance, Irish literature since 1800 (London, 2002).
2. This takes into account that one title The mayor of Wind-gap and Canvassing is twice in this Guide because it was written by two different authors, John Banim and Harriet Letitia Martin.
3. The puzzlement predates to the 1960s (when Rolf Loeber published his Moderne Ierse verhalen [Modern Irish short stories ] (Amsterdam, 1966), an anthology of twentieth-century Irish short stories translated into Dutch. Since that time, he published two other books (a biographical dictionary of Irish architects, and a book on the settlement of Ireland during the sixteenth century) and, often in collaboration with his wife Magda, a set of papers on architecture, colonial settlement, and Irish fiction.
4. The process of such search, as is also emphasized by Cleary, improves knowledge of ‘the material infrastructures of publication, circulation, reviewing and anthologizing’ (J. Cleary, ‘The nineteenth-century Irish novel: notes and speculations on literary historiography’ in J. Belanger (ed.), Irish novel, p.202.
5. Cited in M. H. Thuente (ed.), Representative Irish tales. Compiled, with an introduction and notes by W. B. Yeats (Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 1970, pp 8, 11. Other calls to examine the social-cultural aspects of Irish fiction can be found, for example, in Morash, ‘Minor literature’, passim.
6. M. Hill, ‘Reading the past: literature and local history’ in R. Gillespie & M. Hill (eds), Doing Irish local history. Pursuit and Inactive (Belfast, 1998), p.63.
7. Zimmermann, [ The Irish Story-teller, Four courts, 2001], pp.258-9.
8. W. J. McCormack (ed.), The Blackwell companion to modern Irish culture (Oxford, 1999), p.1.
9. J. F. Molloy, What has thou done? (London, 1883), i, pp. 156-7; in Eagleton, Scholars & rebels, p.47.
10. Vance, Irish literature, p.31; see also Zimmermann, p.73.
12. Zimmermann, p.326.
13. T. Flanagan, The Irish novelists, 18001850 (New York, 1958), p. 188.
14. R. F. Foster, The Irish story: Telling tales and making it up in Ireland (London, 2001), p.3.
15. S. Lover, Legends and stories of Ireland (Dublin, 1830), preface.
16. Vance, Irish literature, p.8; Murphy, p.79.
17. Cited in Rafroidi, i, p. 265.
18 Cited in Zimmermann, p.239; see also [anon.], The periodical press of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1824), p.189.
19. W. J. Fitzpatrick, The life of Charles Lever (London, n.d., new edn), p. 175.
20 Zimmermann, p. 49.
21 B. Earls, ‘Supernatural legends in nineteenth-century Irish writing’ in Béaloideas, lx-lxi (1992-93), p.127.
22 Cited in Zimmermann, p.328.
23. Zimmermann, pp.209-10, 238, 242.
24. Leerssen, Remembrance and Imagination.
25. It should be taken into account, however, that some of the single-book fiction writers were also authors of poetry, plays, or non-fictional works.
26. C. Morash, ‘On the minor literature: nineteenth century Ireland’ in J. McMinn (ed.), The internationalism of - Irish literature and drama (Savage, NIB, 1992), p.211.
27. Quoted in the Irish Times, 4 Jan. 2002, p. 15.
28. Wolff, i, p.xvi.
29. The choice of excluding authors who published their first book of fiction after 1900 was governed by the fact that the works of many of the twentieth-century authors have been inventoried better than those of the preceding period.
30. Flanagan, Irish novelists, passim.
31. E.g., Foster, Inch star; P. Rafroidi & T. Brown (eds), The Irish short story (Lille, n.d.); Zimmermann.
32. S. Whyte, Poems on various subjects (Dublin, 1795), p.161.
33. This excludes books in this Guide appearing after 1900.
34. Thuente 2, passim, K. Whelan, ‘The Republic in the village: The dissemination and reception of popular political literature in the 1790s’ in G. Long (ed.), Books beyond the Pale (Dublin, 1996), pp.101.
35. There were peaks in publishing in 1886, 1889, 1895, and 1898. Our figures over the period 1700 to 1840 are somewhat comparable with the figures for British fiction published by Moretti for Britain in that period (F. Moretti, Graphs, maps, trees. Abstract models for a literary history (London, 2005, p.7), and are comparable for the period 1770-1779 (Raven, 2, p27), and for the period 1800-1829 (Garside, p.38). Note however, that the inclusion criteria of fiction for this Guide are broader than those used by Moretti, Raven or Garside.
36. G. Denvir, ‘Literature in Irish, 1800-1800: from the Act of the Union to the Gaelic League’ in M. Kelleher & P. O’Leary, (eds), The Cambridge history, of English literature (Cambridge, 2006), i, pp 566-67.
37. J. B. Trotter, Walks through Ireland in ... 1812, 1814 and 1817 (London 1819). p.46.
38. J. Leerssen, ‘A la recherche d’une littérature perdue: Literary history, Irish identity and Douglas Hyde’ in M. Spiering, Nation build ing and writing literary history (Amsterdam, 1999), p.96; D. O’hÓgáin, ‘Folklore and literature: 1700-1850’, in M. Daly & D. Dickson (eds), The origins of j oopular literacy in Ireland (Dublin, 1990), p.4.
39 J. Leerssen, Hidden Ireland, public sphere (Galway 2002), p. 36.
40.M. Cronin, Translating Ireland. Translation, hotgnages, cultures (Cork, 1996), p.115. However, in some instances, English fiction was incorporated into narrative in the Irish language.
41. Cullen, ‘Patrons’, p.33.
42. D. Dickson, Old World colony: Cork and South Munster 1630-1830 (Cork, 2005), p.260, and sources mentioned on p.578, n.57. See also T.F. O’Reilly [sic for Rahilly] ‘Irish poets, historians, and judges in English documents, 1538-1615’, in Proceedings of the RIA, XXXVI (1921-24), pp 86-120.
43. Butler, p. 91; G. FitzGerald, ‘Estimates for baronies of minimum level of Irish-speaking among successive decennial cohorts: 1771-1781 to 1861-1871’, in Proceedings of the RIA, Section C, lxxxiv ( 1984 ), pp.3-155; G. FitzGerald, ‘The decline of the Irish language, 1771-I871’ in Daly & Dickson (eds), Origins of popular literacy in Ireland, pp.9-72.
44. L. Cullen, ‘Patrons, teachers, and literacy in Irish’ in M. Daly & D. Dickson (eds), The origins of popular literacy in Ireland (Dublin, 1990), pp. 22, 24, 27, 29-30, 32.
45. A. McManus, The Irish hedge school and its books, 1695-1831 (Dublin, 2002), pp. 182 4, 248 - 56; J. Glasscock, Notes of three tours in Ireland in 1824 and 1826 ( Bristol, 1832), passim; R. Loeber & M. Stouthamer-Loeber, ‘Fiction available to and written for cottagers and their children’ in B. Cunningham and M. Kennedy (eds), The experience of reading: Dish historical perspectives (Dublin, 1999), pp 124-72; J. Logan, ‘Book learning: The expe rience of reading in the national schools 1831-1900’ in B. Cunningham and NI. Kennedy, Experience of reading,, pp. 173-95.
46. P. Joshi, ‘Fiction, the reading public, and the British novel in Colonial India’ in E. Greenspan & J. Rose (eds), Book history. Volume 1 (University Park, PA, 1998), pp. 199-202.
47. Vance, Irish Literature, pp. 20, 24.
48. W. Wilde, Irish popular superstitions (Dublin, [18521), pp 9-11, 21; for other accounts of the impact of the Famine on storytelling and singing, see Zimmermann, pp 273-4.
49. K. Kenny, ‘The Irish and the Empire’ in K. Kenny (ed.), Ireland and the British Empire (Oxford, 2004), p.100. According to R.M. Martin, Ireland before and after the Union with Great Britain (London, 1843), p.167, under half a million of Irish had already emigrated to Britain by 1841.
50. Martin, Ireland before and after the Union, p. 188.
51. Kenny, ‘The Irish and the Empire’, pp.93, 96, 98-9. One should not forget, however, that Irish was the only language of a proportion of Irishmen and women who emigrated.
52. S. M.Griffin, Anti-Catholicism and nineteenth-century fiction (Cambridge, 2004), P. 3.
53. D. Kiberd, ‘Literature and politics’ in M. Kelleher & P. O’Leary (eds), Cambridge history of Irish literature, ii, p.12.
54. J. Leerssen, ‘À la recherche’, p. 104.
55. T. Dooley, The decline of the Big House in Ireland: A study of Irish landed families 1800-1960 (Dublin, 2001), passim.
56. S. Deane, ‘Heroic styles: the tradition of an idea’, cited in T.E. Hachey & L. T. McCaffrey (eds), Perspective on Irish nationalistim (Lexington, KY, 1989), p. 77; Deane, Short history, p.74.
57. R. Loeber & M. Stouthamer-Loeber, ‘Literary absentees: Irish women authors in nineteenth-century England’ in J. Belanger (ed.), The Irish novel in the nineteenth century (Dublin, 2005), pp.167-86.
58. Vance, Irish Literature, p.125
59. Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, ‘Literary absentees’, pp.167-86; for daughters of Church of Ireland ministers in the early twentieth century, see O. Walsh, Anglican women in Dublin (Dublin, 2005).
60. Cited in P.L. Marcus, Yeats and the beginning of the Irish renaissance (Ithaca, 1970), pp 1, 3, 14. 61. William Carleton, preface to his Traits and stories (Dublin: William Curry Jnr & Co.; London: William S. Orr & Co., 1843), 1, pp v-vi; [anon.], Periodical press, p.195.
62 See Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, ‘Literary absentees’, pp.171-82; Bolsters Magazine
(Cork, 1826), i, no. 1, cited in D. & M. Coakley, Wit and wine (Peterhead, 1975), p. ix.
63. Cited in S. Haddelsey, Lever: The last Victorian (Gerrards Cross, 2000), p. 23.
64. P. J. Murray, The life of John Banim (New York, 1869), p. 288.
65. Leerssen, Hidden Iretand, pp.13-5, 23-4. The complexity of cultural transfer was increased by the fact that (a) many Irish legends were in ancient Irish, which was no longer current in the countryside, and was initially studied and made available through German, French and English scholars; (b) in certain parts of the countryside and even as late as the nineteenth century, the Irish peasantry (not to mention the clergy) knew Latin and had read classical authors (Vance, Irish literature, p.113).
66. Cited in Marcus, Yeats, pp 1, 3, 14.
67. Foster, Irish story, p. 68.
68. Foster, Irish story, p.77; on Hyde and the introduction of Irish literature, see also Leerssen ‘À la recherche’, pp 95-108.
69. See e.g., Cahalan, p.22, which discusses a modest number of Irish historical novels; E. Reilly, ‘Fictional histories: An examination of Irish historical and political novels 1880-1914. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Oxford, 1997.
70. J. Leerssen, ‘The cultivation of culture: Towards a definition of romantic nationalism in Europe’. Working Papers, European Studies, Amsterdam, No. 2. Opleiding Europese Studies, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2005, p.10.
71. Cited in Ferris, Romantic national tale, p. 13.
72. Ferris, pp 46-47, citing Eagleton, Heathcliff, p.201, and J. Leerssen, ‘On the treatment of Irishness in romantic Anglo-Irish fiction’, Irish University Review, xx (1990), p.257.
73. Cited in Zimmermann, p. 244.
74. For example, R.V. Comerford, Inventing the nation: Ireland (London, 2003); Deane, Strange country, p.49ff.; Ferris, Romantic national tale, passim; L. Gibbons, ‘Constructing the canon: versions of national iden tity’, in Field Day, ii, pp. 950-55; Leerssen, Remembrance and imagination, passim; D. Lloyd, Nationalism and minor literature (Berkeley, CA, 1987); P. Rafroidi, ‘Defining the Irish literary tradition in English’, in Princess Grace Library (ed.), Irishness in a changing society (Towata, NJ, 1988), pp.32-47; Thuente 2, passim; K. Trumpener, Bardic Nationalism. The romantic novel and the British isles (Princeton NJ, 1997).
75. Leerssen, ‘Cultivation of culture’, p. 10, n.13.
76. Cited in D. G. Boyce, Nationalism in Ireland (London, 1982), p.177.
77. Deane, Short history, p.76.
78. William Carleton’s preface to his Traits and stories of the Irish peasantry (1843 edn.),
79. Deane, Strange country, p.53; see also Deane, Short history, p.6217f.
80. K. Trumpener, Bardic national ism, p.17.
81. Zimmermann, p.260.
82. ii, p.70
83. Cited in Zimmermann, p.331.
84. R. Loeber, M. Stouthamer-Loeber and J. Leerssen, ‘Early calls for an Irish national literature, 1820-1877’ in N. McCaw (ed.), Writing Irishness in nineteenth century British culture (London, 2004), pp 12-33; W. Hall, passim; J. Belanger, ‘Educating the reading public: Critical reception of the Irish fiction of Maria Edgeworth and Lady Morgan, 18001830’, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Kent, Canterbury, 1999; Belanger (see index of short titles, this volume); K. Lubbers, ‘Author and audience in the early nineteenth century’, in P. Connolly (ed.), Literature and the Changing Ireland (Gerrards Cross, 1982), pp. 25-36.
85 R.L. Edgeworth & M. Edgeworth, Readings on poetry (London, 1816), 2nd edn. (corrected), pp.xix-xx.
86. For evidence in the eighteenth century, see Raven 1788:18, 1791:54. This is also evident from titles that were first published in Ireland and subsequently in England, where the English review was based on the English but not on the Irish edition (see e.g., Raven 1780:11, 1781 : 4, 1786:21). For additional information about reviews, see Foster and Foster 2. The situation was basically similar for much of the nineteenth century.
87. See the person index of the Guide, and also M. Kennedy, ‘Women and read ing in eighteenth-century Ireland’ in Cunningham and Kennedy, Experience of reading, p.89.
88. P.J. Dowling, The hedge schools of Ireladn (Cork, [1968]); Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, ‘Fiction for cottagers’, pas sim.
89. For example, McManus, Irish hedge schools, pp.218-36.
90. M. Casteleyn, A history of literacy and libraries in Ir eland (Aldershot, 1984 ), p. 30. The society succumbed after 1831 during the period that Daniel O’Connell’s Catholic Emancipation program succeeded.
91. For examples, see sources in British Fiction.
92 C.G. Duffy; Young Ireland. A fragment of Irish history, 1840-1845 (Dublin, 1884 ), I, p. 25.
93. Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, ‘Literary absentees’, p. 185.
94. Cited in P. Rafroidi, ‘The Irish short story in English. The birth of a new tradition,’ in P. Rafroidi & T. Brown (eds), The Irish short story, (Lille, n.d.), p. 34.
95. B. Hayley, ‘The Eerishers are marchin’ in leeterature’ in W. Zach & H. Kosok (eds), Literary interrelations. Leland, England, and the world ( Tubingen, 1987), p. 41.
96 Hayley, ‘Eerishers’, p.46.
97. Murphy, Catholic fiction, p. 18.
98. Critique in United Ireland (Feb. 1891), cited in J. S. Kelly, ‘The fall of Parnell and the rise of Irish literature: an investigation’ in Anglo-Inch Studies, ii (1976), p.11.
99. Cited in Thuente, 2, pp.10, 17.
100. Murphy, Catholic fiction, p. 16.
101. Cited in Kelly, ‘Fall of Parnell’, p.13.
102. Ibid., pp.13-14.
103. Ibid., p.11.
104 Foster, The Irish story, p.110; P. Ward, Exile, emigration and Irish writing (Dublin, 2002), p. 180.
105 Vance, Irish Literature p. 25.
106. Hall, Dialogues, p. 131; see also M. Kelleher, ‘“Wanted an Irish novelist”: the crit ical decline of the nineteenth-century novel’, in J. Belanger (ed.), The Irish novel in the nineteenth century, p.193ff. 107. C. Connolly, ‘“I accuse Miss 0wenson”: The Wild Irish Girl as media event’ in Colby Quarterly, XXXVI (2000), p.98.
108. P.C. Canon Sheehan, Literary essays and poems (Dublin, n.d), p.76.
109. Cited in Loeber et al., ‘Literary absentees’, p.183.
110. Thuente i, p.18.
111. S. J. Brown, Catalogue of novels and tales by Catholic writers (Dublin, 1832, 5th edn), p.v; see also Casteleyn, History of literacy, p.104
112. See e.g., P. Ward, Exile, emigration and Irish writing (Dublin, 2002), pp.179-80; the theme is also mentioned in novels, such as J. F. Molloy, What has thou done? (London, 1883), ii, pp 68-69; M. Coleman, ‘“Eyes big as bowls with fear and wonder”: Children’s responses to the Irish national schools, 1850--1922’ in Proceedings of the RIA, iic (No. 5), 1998, p.194.
113. J. Furniss, The book of young persons (Dublin, 1860), p.25.
114 A member of the Ursuline Community, The Catholic Lady’s keepsake,- or the gleanings offered to increase the store of our young friends educated at St. Mary’s (Dublin, 1850), p.65.
115. K. Tynan, Twenty-five years: reminiscences (New York, 1913 ), pp. 54-5, 69. See also, M. Cullen, Girls don’t do honours (Dublin, 1987), pp 37-41.
116. Summers, p.219.
117. The hoods are by Wolff, introd. p.8.
118. Typescript of de-accession list of Irish fiction, formerly in the Royal Irish Academy, 1993
119. Personal communications by William O’Sullivan, Oct. 1993 and May 1994; anonymous staff member of Trinity College Library, Jan. 2001; Peter Costello, May1994.
120. S. J. Brown, Catalogue of novels and tale., by Catholic writers (Dublin, 1932, 5th edn), pp.49-51, 56.
121. M. Casteleyn, A history of literary and libraries in Ireland (Aldershot, 1984), p.106.

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