[Lady] Augusta Gregory (1852-1932)

[Lady Gregory; née Isabella Augusta Persse;] b. early moments of 15 March 1852, twelfth of 16 children and 7th dg. of Dudley Persse (d. 1878) with his second wife Frances [née Barry] of Roxborough House burnt in the Civil War, 1922, on 6,000-acre estate nr. Loughrea, S. Co. Galway; her mother was a passionate proselytiser; Augusta, a high-spirited girl, experienced religious scruples in adolescence; influence by Mary Sheridan, family housekeeper, a native speaker told her of Irish legends; educated at home; m. at twenty-eight to Sir W. H. Gregory, then a sixty-three year-old widower, former gov. of Ceylon and Trustee of the National Gallery and MP for Galway (d.1892), 4 March 1880, St. Mathias Church, Hatch St., Dublin (before rector Canon Wynne); settled in London, where the Gregory’s salon was frequented by Browning, Tennyson, Millais, Henry James, and others; summered at his family home, Coole Park [note], nr. Gort, Co. Galway, barony of Kiltartan, where he had an extensive library; a son, Robert, b.1881 - Sir William privately wishing that he were shut up for seven years;
shared diplomatic station with Sir William in Alexandria, and during that time conducted a love-affair with Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, 1882-83, writing the poems he later published as “A Woman’s Sonnets”, as if his own; assisted Blunt in the defence of [Ali] Arabi Bey; issued ‘Arabi and His Household’ (Times, 23 Sept. 1882); commenced her diary (1892-1902) on the death of her husband; travelled solo to Inisheer, Aran Islands, and experienced awakening of interest in folklore; collected folktales, often in the Gort workhouse (a scenario rehearsed by Sean O’Faolain in “The End of the Record”) and learnt Irish; the Hiberno-English dialect of her own Galway locality; anonymously published an anti-Home Rule pamphlet entitled Home Ruin (1893); met W. B. Yeats, 1896, and received a brief visit at Coole; commenced collecting folk-lore in Kiltartan region with W. B. Yeats, 1896; established Irish class at Coole schoolhouse; met Douglas Hyde, 1897; first of twenty summers spent by Yeats at Coole, 1897;
planned a Celtic Theatre with Edward Martyn and Yeats at Durras [var. Dorcas] House, property of Count de Basterot, and Coole Park, 1897 [though 1898 in her own account]; fnd. Irish Literary Theatre, 1899-1901, later Abbey Theatre Company, of which she held the patent (dated 20 Aug. 1904) and which she directed with Yeats and Synge; edited nationalist essays by Yeats, AE, D. P. Moran, George Moore, Douglas Hyde, and Standish James O’Grady as Ideals in Ireland (1901), gathered from journals incl. chiefly New Ireland Review and the Leader; made a translation of the Ulster saga as Cuchulain of Muirthemne, with a preface by W. B. Yeats (1902), dedicated ‘to the people of Kiltartan’, and using Kiltartanese Hiberno-English dialect (‘plain and simple words, in the same way my old nurse used to be telling me stories from the Irish long ago, and I a child at Roxborough’) - largely faithful to the original while reducing Cuchulain’s ‘warp-spasm’ (Kinsella) to a ‘hero’s halo’); described prefatorily by Yeats as ‘the best [book] that has come out of Ireland in my time’ - a phrase that Joyce later ridiculed in Ulysses (1922);
her translation of Casadh an tSugain (1901) as The Twisting of the Rope appeared in Samhain, No. 1 (1901); issued Poets and Dreamers (1903), containing translations of Raftery, folk-tales, and translations of short plays by Hyde, and greeted as ‘the greatest book to come out of Ireland in our time’ by Yeats in a review in Bookman (May 1903), a phrase ridiculed by Joyce in Ulysses; wrote letter with George Russell, Yeats, and others, to Freeman’s Journal and Irish Times seeking support for Hugh Lane Collection (Dec.-Jan. 1904); issued Gods and Fighting Men (1904), based on mythological cycle and cycle of the kings; issued A Book of Saints and Wonders (1906) which narrates in Kiltartanese lore of St. Brigit, St. Patrick, St. Colum Cille, the voyages of Maeldune and Brendan, the Old Woman of Beare, and ‘Great Wonders of the Olden Time’, sourced in Irish folk-tales and learned journals but also from local people around Coole;
she began writing plays by helping Yeats with the peasant dialogue of his plays and in effect co-authoring Cathleen Ni Houlihan, The Pot of Broth (3 Oct. 1902), and Where There is Nothing, et al.; her first play, Twenty Five (1903), was produced with Yeats’s The Hour-Glass; she opened the Abbey Theatre - successor to the Irish Literary Theatre - with Spreading the News (28 Dec. 1904), performed along with Yeats’s On Baile Strand; supported Synge against Catholic-nationalist opposition to his Playboy of the Western World (1907), but did not admire it as Yeats did;wrote nineteen original plays and seven translations for the Abbey, 1904-1912, incl. several examples of ‘Kiltartan Molière’ such as The Doctor in Spite of Himself (1906), The Rogueries of Scapin (1908), The Miser (1909), and The Would-Be Gentleman (1923);
her plays in the vein of ‘folk history’ incl. Kincora (Abbey Th., 25 March 1905), on Brian Boru; The White Cockade (1905); The Canavans (1906), set in Elizabethan times; and The Rising of the Moon (1907), in which a patriotic RIC-man lets a Fenian escape from the guarded quayside, written with Hyde; also with Hyde, The Poorhouse (3 April 1907), later called The Workhouse Ward (1908), in which the scolding paupers were a symbol of Ireland, acc. Lady Gregory’s notes; issued Dervorgilla (1907), on the wife of Demot MacMurrough; also The Deliverer (1911), an allegory of Home Rule set in Egypt; also The Image (1909) and Damer’s Gold (1912); MacDonough’s Wife (1912), written aboard ship en route to America;
starts collecting notebook materials from Irish peasantry using ‘leisure, patience, reverence and a good memory’ (Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland, p.15); and Grania (1911), all later collected as Irish Folk History Plays (1912); her later comedies incl. Hyacinth Halvey (Feb. 1906) which provides comment, acc. to herself, on the tendency for reputations in Ireland to be ‘built up or destroyed by a password or an emotion, rather than by experience and deliberation’; published The Kiltartan History Book (1909), The Kiltartan Wonder Book (1910); produced Shaw’s Shewing-Up of Blanco Posnet in defiance of Dublin Castle, 1909;
birth of Richard Graham Gregory, at Coole, to Robert and Margaret, 1909; a 20 p.c. rent reduction application made to the Land Commissioner, Gerald Fitzgerald, was allowed to Coole Park fifteen tenants, 30 July 1909, occasioning Yeats’s poem [“Upon a House Shaken by the Land Agitation”]; called ‘Guiding Genius’ of Abbey by the New York Dramatic Mirror, during an American tour 1911-12; had a brief sexual affair with John Quinn, in New York, 1912; issued a history of the national theatre as Our Irish Theatre (1913) - ded. to Richard Graham Gregory [elsewhere R.G.G.], with occasional remarks on the Irish affinities of his family - viz., dedication and the italicised opening of Ch. II, pp.50-51); threatened to sue George Moore for references to her mother as a prosletyser ‘for the religion of the extreme Irish evangelical school’ in Vale (1914); travelled to America on tour again, 1915; underwent mastectomy under local anaesthetic;
wrote Shanwalla (1915), a ghost story staged by Hugh Lane; exempted by IRA from big-house attacks; issued Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland, 2 vols. (1920), which incl. two essays by W. B. Yeats on the material included in it; objected to Black and Tan brutality in Co. Galway in anonymous articles published in The Nation, Oct. 1920-Jan. 1921; establish Irish PEN, a branch of the world-wide writers’ association, 1921; her monologue, An Old Woman Remembers (1923), recited by Maire O’Neill in the Abbey; The Story Brought By Brigid (Abbey 1923), a moving play; late plays incl. Sancha’s Master (1927) and Dave (1927); wrote the history of her home in Coole (1931); sold Coole Park to Forestry Commission, 1927, receiving life tenancy at lease-back of £100 p.a.; took title role in Cathleen Ni Houlihan for three performances of the play shortly after her 67th birthday (18-21 March 1919), saying, ‘After all, what is needed but an old hag and a voice’;
professed herself ‘with the Nationalists all through - more than they know or my dearest realise’; d. small hours of 22-23 May; bur. with her sister Arabella, New Cemetery, Galway; Coole Park sold and stripped of lead, being pulled down in 1941 [err. 1942]; an ‘Autograph Tree’ preserves initials of Yeats, Synge, Russell, Hyde, Moore, O’Casey, Shaw, and many others (though of women only Lady Sackville and Countess Cromartie); most of her works were published in New York by Putnam a little in advance of the London edns. from the English company of the same name, the latter keeping her plays in print to the mid 1960s; the Berg Collection at the New York Public Library acquired most of her papers, incl. all but one vols. of her diaries (the first being in Emory), from the family in 1964; remaining stock of titles, primarily plays, held by her London publisher purchased by Colin Smythe in 1965;
Colin Smythe’s bibliographical collection of c.150 vols. incl. first edns. with numerous other issues and impressions sold to the UCG library, 1975-76; there is portrait in oil by John Butler Yeats in the National Gallery of Ireland and another dated 1905 by Antonio Mancini in the Municipal Gallery; George Moore called Lady Gregory’s Kiltartanese ‘a Kiltartan three-hole whistle’; Synge told her, ‘Cuchulainn is still part of my daily bread’; Gogarty asserted, ‘the perpetual presentation of her plays nearly ruined the Abbey’; there is a portrait of 1908 by Antonio Mancini in the Municipal Gallery of Ireland; Lady Gregory was the subject of “Fire in the Blood” with Derbhle Crotty as narrator in the first of four films on the Irish Literary Revival produced by RTÉ1 (Mon. 29 Feb. 2016). JMC ODNB NCBE IF DIW DIB DIH DIL OCEL KUN FDA KUN OCIL FDA

Lady Augusta Gregory (née Persse) Coole Park (by W. B. Yeats)

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[ View Index of the Writings of Lady Gregory in RICORSO Library > Irish Classics - in this frame or in a separate window.]
Plays (selected among 40 others)
  • Spreading the News (Dublin: Maunsel 1904; London & NY: Putnam 1909) [copy attached - .pdf or doc].*
  • Kincora: A Play in Three Acts [Vol. II of Abbey Ser.; 2nd edn.] (Dublin: Maunsel 1905).
  • The Rising of the Moon (Abbey 1907) [copy attached - .pdf or .doc].
  • The Workhouse Ward (Abbey 1908) [copy attached - .pdf or .doc].
  • Hyacinth Halvey (NY: Quinn 1906; Dublin: Maunsel 1910) [copy attached - .pdf or .doc].
  • The Image: A Play in Three Acts (Dublin: Maunsel 1910).
  • Irish Folk History Plays [First Series] (London & NY: Putnam 1912).
  • Irish Folk History Plays [Second Series] (London & NY: Putnam 1912).
  • McDonough’s Wife [first pub.] in New Irish Comedies (NY & London 1913).
  • The Image and Other Plays (London & NY: Putnam 1922).
  • The Dragon: A Play in Three Acts (London & NY: Putnam 1920; Talbot 1920).
  • The Story Brought by Brigit: A Passion Play in Three Acts (London & NY: Putnam 1924).

See also - The Travelling Man (1905) [.pdf or .doc]; The Gaol Gate (1909) .pdf or .doc]., and The Jackdaw (1909) [.pdf or .doc].

*Note: .PDFs opens in this window unless otherwise indicated; .docx download to any folder you choose.
Selected & Collected Plays
  • Seven Short Plays (Dublin: Maunsel 1909), ded. to W. B. Yeats [see details].
  • Selected Plays of Lady Gregory chosen & introduced by Elizabeth Coxhead; foreword by Sean O’Casey (London & NY: Putnam; [NY:] Hill & Wang 1962), and Do. [facs. edn.] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1975), 270pp. [see details].EC_SelPlays
  • Selected Plays of Lady Gregory, chosen and with an introduction by Mary FitzGerald; with a foreword by Sean O’Casey (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1983), 377pp. [see details].
  • Arabi and His Household (priv. 1882) [on Arabi Bey, one of the colonels in revolt].
  • Over the River (priv. 1887), pamphlet for poor South London parish of St. Stephen’s, Southwark [vide ‘Among the Poor’ in Seventy Years, autobiography].
  • A Phantom’s Pilgrimage, or Home Ruin (London: Ridgeway 1893) [anon. pamphlet against Gladstone’s 2nd Home Rule Bill].
  • Cuchulain of Muirthemne: The Story of the Men of the Red Branch of Ulster [... &c.] (London: John Murray 1902) [see more under Mythological writings, infra.]
  • Poets and Dreamers: Studies and Translations from the Irish (London: Murray; Dublin: Hodges & Figgis 1903), and Do. [rep. edn.] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1974) [see details].
  • Gods and Fighting Men: The Story of the Tuatha de Danaan and of the Fianna of Ireland, Preface by W. B. Yeats (London: Murray 1904), 446pp. [see more under “Mythological Writings”, infra].
  • A Book of Saints and Wonders, put down here by Lady Gregory, According to the Old Writings and the Memory of the People of Ireland (Dublin: Dun Emer Press 1906), and Do., enl. edn. (London: John Murray; NY: Scribners 1907), 233pp. [200 copies], and Do. (rep. 1908) [available at Internet Archive - online].
  • The Kiltartan History Book (Dublin: Maunsel 1909), 4 ills. by Robert Gregory; Do. [another edn.] (1923).
  • Kiltartan Poetry Book: Translations from the Irish (London & NY: G. P. Putnam 1919),and Do. (NY: Knickerbocker Press 1919) [see details].
  • A Book of Saints and Wonders (Dundrum: Dun Emer 1906, enl. 1907).
  • The Kiltartan Wonder Book, by Lady Gregory, illustrated by Margaret Gregory (Maunsel & Co. Ltd., 96, Middle Abbey Street, Dublin. [1911] [4 p.], 105pp. [see details].
  • Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland (London: G. P. Putnam 1920), with notes by Yeats; Do. [rep. edn.] (Colin Smythe 1970).
  • Hugh Lane’s Life and Achievement, with some account of the Dublin Galleries (London: John Murray 1921) [Jan. 1921], ill.
  • Case for the Return of Sir Hugh Lane’s Pictures to Dublin (Dublin: Talbot Press 1926), 48pp., ill. [pl., port. facs.] [22.5cm].
  • Edward Malins, ed. & intro., Lady Gregory, Coole (Dublin: Cuala Press 1931) [ltd. 250 copies], 72pp.; Do., completed from the manuscript and edited by Colin Smythe, with a foreword by Edward Malins [Dolmen Edns. 10] (Dolmen 1971), 105pp. [ltd. edn. 1,050], 108pp. [2 extra chaps. adding to 3, 4 & 5 prev. printed in 1931; p.27-28]; and Do., with “Coole Park”, a poem by W. B. Yeats]. [facs. of 1931 edn.] (Shannon: IUP 1971), [4], 51pp.
  • Seventy Years: Being the Autobiography of Lady Gregory (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1974, 1976), xvi, 583pp.
Autobiography & Memoir
  • Our Irish Theatre: A Chapter of Autobiography (NY: G. P. Putnam 1913; London: G. P. Putnam 1914), 319pp. [pb. - available at Internet Archive - online; accessed 28.03.2023]; Do. (NY: Knickerbocker Press 1914), v, 319pp. [336pp.]; Do. [rep. edn.] (London: Capricorn Books 1965).
  • Our Irish Theatre [by] Lady Gregory: The story of one of the greatest movements in modern drama told by one of the participants, introduced by Daniel Murphy [City College, New York], (NY: Capricorn Books 1965), [356pp.; copyright Richard Graham Gregory, Anne Gregory and Catherine F. Kennedy, executors; preview online; accessed 28.03.2023.]
  • Our Irish Theatre, by Lady Gregory, Do., with a foreword by Roger McHugh (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe; NY: OUP 1972) [q.pp.].
Edited collections
    • Ed., Ideals in Ireland: A Collection of Essays Written by AE and Others (London: At the Unicorn VII Cecil Court 1901) [contribs.: AE [George Russell] (“Nationality and imperialism”), D. P. Moran (“The Battle of Two Civilizations”, George Moore (“Literature and the Irish Language”), Douglas Hyde ( ”What Ireland is Asking For”), Hyde (“The Return of the Fenians”, Standish J. O’Grady (“The Great Enchantment”), W. B. Yeats (“The Literary Movement in Ireland”), and Yeats (“A postscript”) - see note].
Gregory Papers
  • Ed., Sir William Gregory, KCMG, formerly member of Parliament and sometime Governor of Ceylon: An Autobiography (London: John Murray 1894), vii, 407pp., ill. [photo port. of Sir William].
  • Ed., Mr Gregory’s Letter-Box 1813-30 [cover 1835] (London: Smith Elder & Co. 1898) [acq. by John Murray].
  • Lennox Robinson, ed., Lady Gregory’s Journals 1916-30 (London: Putnam 1946; NY: Macmillan 1947), 344pp. [Index, 341ff.]
  • Daniel J. Murphy, ed., Lady Gregory’s Journals Vol. I [Journal Books 1-29; 10 Oct. 1916-24 Feb. 1925; Coole Edition, Vol. 14], with an Afterword by Colin Smythe (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe; NY: OUP 1978), xvi, 707p., ill. [1pl; 2 ills. ; 23cm.].
  • Daniel J. Murphy, ed., Lady Gregory’s Journals, Vol. II [Journal Books 30-44; 21 Feb. 1925-9 May 1932; Coole Edition, Vol. 14] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe; NY: OUP 1987), 750pp. [Afterword, p.639; Notes, p.661; Index, p.713].
  • James Pethica, ed., Lady Gregory’s Diaries 1892-1902 [with additional sporadic entries 1903-1909] (Gerrards Cross Colin Smythe 1995), 346pp., ills. [4pp. pls. [var. 16 ills.]

See also Melosina Lenox-Conyngham, ed., Diaries of Ireland from Ludolf von Münchausen to Lady Gregory (Dublin: Lilliput Press 1998), 256pp. [excerpts].

Sundry articles
  • ‘Ireland, Real and Ideal’, in Nineteenth Century, 44 (Nov. 1898), cp.70-75.
  • ‘The Felons on Our Land’, in Cornhill Magazine, 47 (1900), pp.633-34.
Selections & anthologies
  • Lucy McDiarmid & Maureen Waters, Lady Gregory: Selected Writings (Harmondsworth: Penguin 1995), 573pp.; [incl. text of Kathleen Ni Houlihan, jointly attrib. to Yeats and Lady Gregory, and Grania, her proto-feminist play.

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Coole Edition (Collected Writings

Colin Smythe & T. R. Henn, gen. eds., The Coole Edition of Lady Gregory’s Writings (1970-82) - incls.:

    1. Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland, with a foreword by Elizabeth Coxhead [Coole Edition, Vol. 1] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1970), 365pp. [Foreword pp.5-8; frontispiece half-plate b&w reps. of “Thoor Ballylee” and “Coole Lake” by Robert Gregory].
    2. Cuchulain of Muirthemne [... &c.] with a foreword by Elizabeth Coxhead [Coole Edition, Vol. 2; (Gerrards Cross: Colins Smythe 1970, 1973), 272pp.
    3. Gods and Fighting Men [... &c.], a foreword by Daniel Murphy [Coole Edition, Vol. 3] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1970, 1976), 367pp.
    4. Our Irish Theatre: A Chapter of Autobiograpy, with a foreword by Roger McHugh [Coole Edition 4 (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1972), 279, [19]pp.; [orig. 1913]
    5. The Collected Plays, with a foreword by Ann Saddlemeyer [Coole Edition, Vols. 5-8] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1970): Comedies [Vol. I, 304pp.,]; Tragedies and Tragic Comedies [Vol. II, 362pp.]; Wonder and Supernatural [Vol. III, 434pp.]; Translations, Adaptions and Collaborations [Vol. IV, 376pp.] & Do., in 2 vols. (NY: OUP 1970) [Gerrards Cross pb. edn. 1979].
    6. The Kiltartan Books Comprising The Kiltartan Poetry History and Wonder Books by Lady Gregory, ill. by Robert and Margaret Gregory, with a foreword by Padraic Colum [Coole Edition, Vol. 9] (Gerrards Cross 1971), 213pp. [Foreword, pp.5-8; frontispiece being Epstein’s head of Lady Gregory, Municipal Gallery of Modern Art, Dublin].
    7. Poets and Dreamers: Studies and Translations from the Irish by Lady Gregory Including Nine Plays of Douglas Hyde, with a foreword by T. R. Henn [Coole Edition 10] (Gerrards Cross 1974), 286pp. [Frontispiece photo. of Lady Gregory taken by Chancellor of Dublin, rep. in a NY newspaper at time of first Abbey tour of USA.]
    8. The Journals: Volume One - Books One to Twenty-six (10 October 1916-24 Feb. 1925), edited by Daniel J. Murphy [Coole Edition 11] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1978), 707pp. [Notes, p.630ff.; Index, p.677ff.]
    9. The Journals, Volume Two [Books Thirty to Forty-four] [Coole Edition 12] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe; NY: OUP 1987).
    10. Seventy Years: Being the Autobiography of Lady Gregory [Coole Edition 13] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1974), xvi, 583pp., ill. [16pp. of pls.; ports].

Note: Gods and Fighting Men [...] (1904) is listed in COPAC as Vol. 3 of Collected Works of Lady Gregory[2nd edn.] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1970), 367pp. - online [25.03.2023].

[Hors de sèrie]: A Book of Saints and Wonders put down here by Lady Gregory according to the old writings and the memory of the people of Ireland; with illustrations by Margaret Gregory and a foreword by Edward Malins [3rd edn.] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1971), 116pp., ill. 2 leaves of pls., ports].

Reprint editions
  • Lady Gregory, Irish Myths and Legends [orig. as Gods and Fighting Men, 1904] (Philadelphia: Running Press; London: Creative Umbrella 1998), 446pp.; Do. [another imp.?] (Philadelphia: Courage Press 1998), 446pp.; Do., with an introduction by Colum Tóibín (Folio Society Edn. 2011), 380pp., ill. [12 col. ills. by Jillian Tamaki; sewn slip-case quarter-bound in brown leather].
  • Ann Saddlemyer, sel. & ed., Some Letters of John M. Synge to Lady Gregory and W. B. Yeats (Dublin: Cuala Press 1971), vii, 85pp. [ltd. edn. of 500].
    Ann Saddlemyer, sel. & ed., Theatre Business; The Correspondence of the First Abbey Directors (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1982), 330pp.
  • Dan H. Laurence & Nicholas Grene, eds., Shaw, Lady Gregory and the Abbey: A Correspondence and a Record (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1993), xliii, 211pp., ill.

See also Letters of W. B. Yeats (ed. John Kelly, et al.)

The Kiltartan history book, by Gregory Lady
Published: 1909, Maunsel and Co. (Dublin)
Pagination: 2 p., 1., iii-viii, 9-52p. [2] .
Subject: Folklore - Ireland.
Irish ballads and songs (English)
English poetry - Irish authors.
Internet Archive Bibliographical Record

[ Copy held in NY Public Library ]

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Bibiliographical details
Poets and Dreamers: Studies & Translations from the Irish, by Lady Gregory (Dublin: Hodges, Figgis & Co.; NY Charles Scribners’ Sons 1903) - CONTENTS: Raftery [1]; West Irish Ballads [47]; Jacobite Ballads [66]; An Craoibhin’s [i.e., Douglas Hyde’s] Poems [76]; Boer Ballads in Ireland [89]; A Sorrowful Lament for Ireland [98]; Mountain Theology [104]; Herb-Healing [111]; The Wandering Tribe [121]; Workhouse Dreams [128]; On the Edge of the World [193]; An Craoibhin’s [i.e., Hyde’s] Plays:— [196]; The Twisting of the Rope [200]; The Marriage [216]; The Lost Saint [236]; The Nativity [244] - (prefixed: Dedication to Some Undergraduates of Trinity College: ‘Will you seek afar off? You surely come back at last, In things best known to you finding the best, or as good as the best; In folks nearest to you finding the sweetest, strongest, lovingest; Happiness, knowledge not in another place, but this place - not for another hour but this hour.’ [attrib.] Walt Whitman.] See text attached as .pdf or .doc; also available at Gutenberg Project - online; accessed 09.09.2021. See also Poets and Dreamers [rep. edn., with foreword by T. R. Henn; Coole Edn., Vol. 11] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1974), 287pp.

Poets and Dreamers (1903) - see text attached as .pdf or .doc; also available at Google Books online [accessed 28.10.2010] and Pennsylvania U. Digital Library > Women > Lady Gregory -online [26.03.2023.].)

The Kiltartan Wonder Book (Dublin: Maunsel & Co. Ltd. / 96, Middle Abbey Street, Dublin; Boston; John W. Luce and Co. [1911]), 105pp..; ill. [plaster fig. of Daniel O'Connell, front. col.] by Margaret Gregory; [ded.: To / R G. G. / A Kiltartan Child. CONTENTS: The Mule [1]; Beswarragal [8]; The Seven Fishers [22]; Shawneen [31]; The Man That Served the Sea [52]; The Bullockeen [59]; The Three Sons [66]; King Solomon [75]; The Robineen [79]; The Ball of Thread [85]; The Horse and Foal [89];  The Woman That Was a Great Fool [91]; The Danes [94]; Cailleac-Na-Cearc [97]; THE GOATS [100]; The Curious Woman [102]; [itemises 8 ills.]. [Author’s] Note: ‘I have not changed a word in these stories as they were told to me, but having heard some of them in different versions from different old people, I have sometimes taken a passage or a phrase from one and put it in another where it seemed to fit. [...] As to the substance of the stories, there is a hint in Shawneen of Perseus and Andromeda, and in The Three Sons of the Garden of the Hesperides, and of Eden itself in The Curious Woman. And who is to say whether those have travelled from east to west, or from west to east, for the barony of Kiltartan, in common with at least three continents, hold fragments of the wonder tales told in the childhood of the world.’ / A.G. [p.105]. [Available at Internet Archive - online; accessed 26.03.2023.]

Kiltartan Poetry Book: Translations from the Irish (London & NY: G. P. Putnam 1919), and Do. (NY: Knickerbocker Press 1919) CONTENTS: The Grief of a Girl’s Heart [23]; A Lament for Fair-Haired Donough that was Hanged in Galway [27]; Raftery’s Praise of Mary Hynes [31]; His Lament for O’Daly [34]; His Praise of the Little Hill and the Plains of Mayo [37]; His Lament for O’Kelly [39]; His Vision of Death [41]; His Repentance [43]; His Answer When Some Stranger Asked Who He Was [44]; A Blessing on Patrick Sarsfield [45]; An Aran Maid’s Wedding [48]; A Poem Written In Time Of Trouble by an Irish Priest Who Had Taken Orders in France [50]; The Heart of the Wood [53]; An Craoibhin Complains Because He Is a Poet [54]; He Cries Out Against Love [56]; He Meditates on the Life of a Rich Man [57]; Forgaill’s Praise of Columcille [59]; The Deer’s Cry [63]; The Hymn of Molling’s Guest, The Man Full of Trouble [66]; The Hag of Beare [68]; The Seven Heavens [72]; The Journey of the Sun [73]; The Nature of the Stars [75]; The Call to Bran [77]; The Army of the Sidhe [80]; Credhe’s Complaint at the Battle of the White Strand [82]; A Sleepy Song That Grania Used to Be Singing Over Diarmuid the Time They Were Wandering and Hiding from Finn [85]; Her Song to Rouse Him from Sleep [87]; Her Lament For His Death [88]; The Parting of Goll and His Wife [91]; The Death of Osgar [94]; Oisin’s Vision [97]; His Praise of Finn [98]; Oisin after the Fenians [100]; The Foretelling of Cathbad The Druid at Deirdre’s Birth [103]; Deirdre’s Lament for the Sons Of Usnach [105]; Emer’s Lament for Cuchulain [110].

Kiltartan Poetry Book (1919) - see text attached as .pdf or .doc; also available at Google Books online [accessed 28.10.2010] and Pennsylvania U. Digital Library > Women > Lady Gregory -online [26.03.2023.].)

Ideals in Ireland, ed. Lady Gregory (London: At the Unicorn 1901), 107pp. - comprising AE [George Russell], ‘Nationality and Imperialism’; D. P. Moran, ‘The Battle of Two Civilizations’; Douglas Hyde, ‘The Return of the Fenians’; George Moore, ‘Literature and Irish Language’; Hyde, ‘What is Ireland Asking For’; Standish O’Grady, ‘The Great Enchantment’; W. B. Yeats, ‘The Literary Movement in Ireland (A Postscript)’. Essay taken from New Ireland Review, All Ireland Review, North American Review, An Claidheamh Soluis, and The Leader. [See rep. edn. NY: Lemma Publishing Corporation, 1973, 107pp.]

Mythological writings

Separate editions
Lady Gregory,  Cuchulain of Murthemne (1902)
  • Cuchulain of Muirthemne: The Story of the Men of the Red Branch of Ulster arranged and put into English by Lady Gregory, with a pref. by W. B. Yeats (London: John Murray 1902; reps. 1913, &c.) [Yeats Pref. listed as Wade 256 [var. 258].
  • Cuchulain of Muirthemne [... &c.], with a preface by W. B. Yeats (London: John Murray 1911) - available online at Internet Archive - online; accessed 07.06.2019 [full copies available at RICORSO - either as pdf. or doc/docx downloads].
  • Cuchulain of Muirthemne [... &c.] [another edn.] (London: John Murray 1934), xvii, 360pp.
  • Cuchulain of Muirthemne [... &c.] with a foreword by Elizabeth Coxhead [Coole Edition [Coll. Lady Gregory] Vol. 2; [prev. edn. 1911] (Gerrards Cross: Colins Smythe 1970, 1973), 272pp.
  • Cuchulain of Muirthemne [... &c.] [another edn.], with Gods and Fighting Men] (London: Slaney Press [Reed Consumer Press] 1994), 550pp., pp.[327]-550.
  • Do., [5th edn.], with a foreword by Daniel Murphy [Coole Edition, 2] (Oxford & NY: OUP 1970), 272pp., ill. [port.], 23 cm.
Lady Gregory, Gods and Fighting Men (1904)
  • Gods and Fighting Men: The Story of the Tuatha de Danaan and of the Fianna of Ireland, arranged and put into English by Lady Gregory; with a Preface by W. B. Yeats (London: John Murray 1904), xxviii, 476pp.; Do., [2nd imp.] (London: Murray 1905), with dedication to Members of the Irish Literary Society of New York [1st edn. Jan. 1904; reps. Dec. 1905; january 1910; August 1913 [available at Internet Archive - online; accessed 05.09.2021].
  • Gods and Fighting Men: The Story of the Tuath de Danaan and of the Fianna of Ireland, arranged and put into English by Lady Gregory, with a preface by W. B. Yeats (London: John Murray 1905) - ded. to the members of the Irish Literary Society of New York - available at Gutenberg Gallery - online; accessed 10.06.2019 & 24.03.2023.
  • Gods and Fighting Men [... &c.] (London: John Murray 1910; another edn. 1913), 476pp. [incls. Notes - 1. The Apology [461], 2 [The Age and Origin of the Stories of the Fianna Gods and Fighting Men [... &c.], [rep. edn.] (London: John Murray 1910), 476pp., incls. Notes - 1. The Apology [461]; The Age and Origin of the Stories of the Fianna [463]; The Authorities [468]; [List of book parts, 468]; Pronunciation [471]; Placenames, [473] - online; accessed 25.03.2023.] Gods and Fighting Men [... &c.], a foreword by Daniel Murphy [Coole Edition 3] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1970, 1976).
Cuchulainn of Muirthemne (1902) and Gods and Fighting Men (1904) - jointly as Irish Myths and Legends
  • Complete Irish Mythology [i.e., Cuchulain of Muirthemne and Gods (1902) and Fighting Men (1904) by Lady Gregory ([s.l.] Slaney Press 1994), 550pp. [facs. rep. - incls. Yeats's Preface with Cuchulain of Muirthemne].
  • Irish Myths and Legends [incls. Cuchulain and Gods and Fighting Men] (Philadelphia: Courage Books 1998), 446pp. [incls. Yeats’s Preface].
  • Irish Myths and Legends, intro. by Colm Tóibín, pref. by W. B. Yeats, ill. by Jillian Tamaki (London: Folio Soc. 2011), xxix, 351pp. [13] leaves of pls.] - from 1904 Murray edition with minor emendations.
  • Irish Myths and Legends - Volume 1: “Gods and Fighting Men” (Dublin: New Island Press 2022), 456pp; Irish Myths and Legends - Volume 2: “Cuchulain and the Red Branch of Ulster” (Dublin: New Island Press 2023), 340pp.

Contents by title ...
Cuchulain of Muirthemne (1902 & Edns) Gods and Fighting Men (1904 & edns.)
Cuchulain of Muirthemne: The History of the Men of the Red Branch of Ulster, arranged and put into English by Lady Gregory, with a Preface by W. B. Yeats [1902]; rep. [with Gods and Fighting Men ] as The Complete Irish Mythology (London: The Slaney Press [Reed Consumer Books] 1995), 550pp. CONTENTS: Birth of Cuchulain [339]; Boy Deeds of Cuchulain [342]; The Courting of Emer [350]; Bricriu’s Feast, and the War of Words of the Women of Ulster [366]; The Championship of Ulster [374]; The High King of Ireland [385]; Fate of the Children of Usnach [398]; The Dream of Angus [420]; Cruachan [423]; The Wedding of Maine Morgor [429]; The War for the Bull of Cuailgne [439]; The Awakening of Ulster [479]; The Two Bulls [493]. Epigraph: “Bheirim an mhóid do bheir mo mhuinntir”, ar Cúchulain, “go mbéidh tracht agus iomrádh fós ar mo gníomharthaibh-se ameasg na n-árd-gníomh do rinne na gairgidhigh is tréine. “I swear by the oath of my people”, said Cuchulain, “I will make my doings be spoken of among the great doings of heroes in their strength”. Dedication of the Irish Edition to the People of Kiltartan: ‘My Dear Friends, / When I began to gather these stories together, it is of you I was thinking, that you would like, to have them and to be reading them. For although you have not to go far to get stories of Finn and Goll and Oisin from any old person in the place, there is very little of the history of Cuchulain and his friends left in the memory of the people, but only that they were brave men and good fighters, and that Deirdre was beautiful. / When I went looking for the stories in the old writings, I found that the Irish in them is too hard for any person to read that has not made a long study of it. Some scholars have worked well at them, Irishmen and Germans and Frenchmen, but they have printed them in the old cramped Irish, with translations into German and French or English, and these are not easy for you to get, or to understand, and the stories themselves are confused, every one giving a different account from the others in some small thing, the way there is not much pleasure in reading them. It is what 1 have tried to do, to take the best of the stories, or whatever part of each will fit best to one another, and in that way give a fair account of Chuchulain’s life and death. I left out a good deal I thought you would not care about for one reason or another, but I put in nothing of my own that could he helped, only a sentence or two now and again to link the different parts together. I have told the whole story in plain and simple words, in the same way my old nurse Mary Sheridan [330] used to be telling stories from the Irish long ago, and I a child at Roxborough. / And indeed if there was more respect for Irish things among the learned men that live in the college at Dublin, where so many of these old writings are stored, this work would not have been left to a woman of the house, that has to be minding the place, and listening to complaints, and dividing the share of food. / My friend and your friend the Craoibhin Aoibhin [Douglas Hyde] has put Irish of today on some of these stories that I have set in order, for I am sure you will like to have the history of the heroes of Ireland told in the language of Ireland. And I am very glad to have something that is worth offering you, for you have been very kind to me ever since I came over to you from Kilchrist, two and twenty years ago. / Augusta Gregory - March 1902.’ (For Preface, see under W. B. Yeats, in Library, “Irish Classics”, infra].
The full text can be viewed here as PDF - or else dowloaded in PDF or DOC file.
[ View the ‘Table of Contents’ here [HTM]- or download as PDF or DOCX.
Internet access: Cuchulain of Muirthemne (1902; rep. 1911) was available at Celtic Twilight - online [last accessed 24.03.2023]; also at Internet Archive in the 1911 edition of John Murray (London) - online; accessed 25.03.2023.]
Extracts ...
Some episodes from Lady Gregory’s Cuchulain of Muirthemne (1902)
“Deirde’s Lamentations”
“Cuchulain’s Fight with Fer Diad”
or proceed RICORSO > Library > Irish Classics > Lady Gregory - index.
Gods and Fighting Men: The Story of the Tuatha de Danaan and of the Fianna of Ireland, arranged and put into English by Lady Gregory, with a Preface by W. B. Yeats [1904]; rep. [with Cuchulain of Muirthemne ] as The Complete Irish Mythology (London: The Slaney Press] [Reed Consumer Books] 1995), 550pp., [2] 1-332. CONTENTS —

‘Dedication to the members of the Irish literary society of New York: ‘My Friends, those I know and those I do not know, 1 am glad in the year of the birth of your Society to have this book to offer you. / It has given great courage to many workers here - working to build up broken walls - to know you have such friendly thoughts of them in your minds. A few of you have already come to see us, and we begin to hope that one day the steamers across the Atlantic will not go out full, but come back full, until some of you find your real home is here, and say as some of us say, like Finn to the woman of enchantments - / “Ní fhagfamaois á dtír féin dá bhfagmaois an domhan mór mar dhuithche agus Tír-na-na-nÓg leis / We would not give up our own country - Ireland - if we were to get the whole world as an estate, and the Country of the Young along with it.” Augusta Gregory.’ CONTENTS: PART [1 - The Gods: Book I - The Coming of the Tuatha de Danaan . I. The Fight with the Firbolgs [17]; II. The Reign of Bres [21]; Book II - Lugh of the Long Hand . I. The Coming of Lugh [26]; II. The Sons of Tuireann [31]; III. The Great Battle of Magh Tuireadh [47]; IV. The Hidden House of Lugh [54]; Book III - The Coming of the Gael . I. The Landing [56]; II. The Battle of Tailltin [59]; Book IV - The Ever-Living Living Ones . I Bodb Dearg [61]; II. The Dagda [64]; III. Angus Og [66]; IV. The Morrigu [68]; V. Aine [69]; V1. Aoibhell [70]; VII. Midhir and Etain [71]; VIII. Manannan [78]; IX. Manannan at play [80]; X. His Call to Bran [84]; XI. His Three Calls to Cormac [87]; XII. Cliodna’s Wave [91]; XIII. His Call to Connla [92]; XIV. Tadg in Manannan’s Islands [94]; XV Laegaire in the Happy Plain [99]; Book V - The Fate of The Children of Lir [103]; PART II - THE FIANNA. Book I - Finn, Son of Cumbal . I. The Coming of Finn [117]; II. Finn’s Household [123]; III. Birth of Bran [125]; IV. Oisin’s Mother [126]; V. The Rest Men of the Fianna [129]; Book II - Finn’s Helpers . I. The Lad of the Skins [135]; II. Black, Brown, and Grey [138]; III. The Hound [140]; IV. Red Ridge [145]; Book III - The Battle of the White Strand . I. The Enemies of Ireland [146]; II. Cael and Credhe [147]; III. Conn Crither [149]; IV. Glas, Son of Dremen [150]; V. The Help of the Men of Dea [151]; VI. The March of the Fianna [153]; VII. The First Fighters [154]; VIII. The King of Ulster’s Son [157]; IX. The High King’s Son [159]; X. The King of Lochlann and his Sons [161]; XI. Labran’s journey [163]; XII The Great Fight [165]; XIII Credhe’s Lament [170]. Book IV - Huntings and Enchantments . I. The King of Britain’s Son [172]; II. The Cave of Ceiscoran [174]; III. Donn, Son of Midhir [175]; IV. The Hospitality of Cuanna’s House [181]; V. Cat-Heads and Dog-Heads [183]; VI. Lomna’s Head [185]; VII. Ilbrec of Ess Ruadh [186]; VIII. The Cave of Cruachan [192]; IX. The Wedding at Ceann Slieve [194]; X. The Shadowy One [199]; XI Finn’s Madness [100]; XII The Red Woman [101]; XIII. Finn and the Phantoms [204]; XIV. The Pigs of Angus [206]; XV The Hunt of Slieve Cuilinn [208]. Book V - Oisin’s Children [211]. Book VI - Diarmuid . I Birth of Diarmuid [215]; II. How Diarmuid got his Love-Spot [216]; III. The Daughter of King Under-Wave [218]; IV. The Hard Servant [223]; V. The House of the Quicken Trees [130]. Book VII - Diarmuid and Grania . I. The Flight from Teamhair [232]; II. The Pursuit [236]; III. The Green Champions [140]; IV. The Wood of Dubhros [246]; V. The Quarrel [254]; VI. The Wanderers [256]; VII. Fighting and Peace [258]; VIII. The Boar of Beinn Gulbain [260]. Book VIII - Cnoc-an-Air . I. Tailc, Son of Treon [268]; II. Meargach’s Wife [270]; III. Ailne’s Revenge [274]. Book IX - The Wearing Away of the Fianna . I. The Quarrel with the Sons of Morna [279]; II. Death of Goll [283]; III. The Battle of Gabhra [284]; Book X - The End of the Fianna . I. Death of Bran [288]; II. The Call of Oisin [288]; III. The Last of the Great Men [290]. Book XI - Oisin and Patrick. I. Oisin’s Story [293]; II. Oisin in Patrick’s House [296]; III. The Arguments [298]; IV. Oisin’s Laments [305]. Notes, viz., I. An Apology [309]; II. The Age and Origin of the Stories of the Fianna [310]; III. The Authorities [Part One: Books One, Two, and Tree; Book Four; Part Two: The Fianna]; IV: Pronunciation [318-24; End].

The full text can be viewed here as PDF - or else dowloaded in PDF or DOC.
[ View the ‘Table of Contents’ here [HTM]- or download as PDF or DOCX.
Internet access: Gods and Fighting Men (1905 [Edn.]) is available in range of digital formats at the Gutenberg Project - online; last accessed 24.03.2023; also at Internet Archive in the 1910 edition of John Murray (London) - online; accessed 25.03.2023.]
Extracts ...
Some episodes from Lady Gregory’s Gods and Fighting Men (1904)

“The Fight with the Firbolgs”

“Lugh of the Long Hand”

“Fate of the Children of Lir”

“Oisin and St Patrick”

Notes [1. “Apology”, &c.]

... or proceed RICORSO > Library > Irish Classics > Lady Gregory - index.


Seven Short Plays (Dublin: Maunsel 1909), 211, [5]pp.; ded. to W. B. Yeats [To you, W. B. YEATS, good praiser, wholesome dispraiser, heavy-handed judge, open-handed helper of us all, I offer a play of my plays for every night of the week, because you like them, and because you have taught me my trade. Abbey, may 1, 1909]. CONTENTS: Spreading the News [1]; Hyacinth Halvey [29]; The Rising of the Moon [75]; The Jackdaw [93]; The Workhouse Ward [137]; The Travelling Man [155]; The Gaol Gate [173]; Music for the Songs in the Plays [189]; Notes, &c. Copyright notices 1903-1909. Similtaneous publication of individual titles in US and Britain [UK]. Acting rights at Samuel French. [Details in 2nd impression by Knickerbocker Press [Putnam] (NY: G P. Putnam’s Sons 1916) - available at Gutenberg Project - online; accessed 24.03.2023..]

Links to individual plays ...

Spreading the News (1904)

.docx .pdf

The Rising of the Moon (1907)

.docx .pdf

The Travelling Man (1905)

.docx .pdf

The Workhouse Ward (1908)

.docx .pdf

Hyacinth Halvey (1906)

.docx .pdf

The Gaol Gate (1909)

.docx .pdf

The Jackdaw (1909)

.docx .pdf      
[Note: These are the contents of Seven Short Plays (Dublin: Maunsel 1909; NY: Putnam 1916) though listed on the English Literature website [online] in alphabetical rather than order of composition, production nor that of the table of contents of the 1909 collection. Full texts are supplied beneath the image of a different edition cover but no dates of publication for the original or the reprint are supplied. ]
—See index of Lady Gregory’s writings on RICORSO in this frame or in a new window.

Selected Plays of Lady Gregory chosen & introduced by Elizabeth Coxhead; foreword by Sean O’Casey (London & NY: Putnam; [NY:] Hill & Wang 1962), 269pp. CONTENTS: The Rising of the Moon; Spreading the News; Hyacinth Halvey; The Workhouse Ward; The Gaol Gate; Dervorgilla; The White Cockade; Grania; Dave; incls. extracts from Our Irish Theatre, extracts from Lady Gregory’s journals, and extracts from Coole[?]

and Do. [facs. edn.] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1975), 270pp. [see details].

Selected Plays of Lady Gregory, chosen and with an introduction by Mary FitzGerald; with a foreword by Sean O’Casey (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1983), 377pp. CONTENTS: The Travelling Man; Spreading the News; Kincora; Hyacinth Halvey; The Doctor in Spite of Himself; The Gaol Gate; The Rising of the Moon; Dervorgilla; The Workhouse Ward; Grania; The Golden Apple; The Story Brought by Brigit; Dave. Incls. Selected Checklist compiled by Colin Smythe; Bibliography, pp.373-77.

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  • W. B. Yeats, ‘Lady Gregory’s Translations’, in The Cutting of the Agate (NY: Macmillan 1912; London: Macmillan 1919) [q.pp.].
  • Andrew E. Malone [on Lady Gregory], in Dublin Magazine (Jan-March 1933) [q.pp.].
  • Vere R. T. Gregory, The House of Gregory: The Gregory Family in Ireland, foreword by T. U. Sadleir [Ulster King of Arms] (Dublin: Browne & Nolan 1943), 210pp., ills.
  • Hazard Adams, Lady Gregory (Lewisburg: Bucknell UP 1973) [q.pp.].
  • Elizabeth Coxhead, Lady Gregory: A Literary Portrait (NY: Harcourt, Brace & World 1961); Do., [rev. edn.] (London: Secker & Warburg 1966), ill.
  • Mary Lou Kohfeldt, Lady Gregory: The Woman Behind the Irish Renaissance (London: André Deutsch; NY: Atheneum 1985).
  • Ann Saddlemyer, ‘Augusta Gregory, Irish Nationalist’, in Joseph Ronsley, ed., Myth and Reality in Irish Literature (Ontario 1977).
  • Ann Saddlemyer, In Defence of Lady Gregory, Playwright (Dublin: Dolmen Press 1966) [q.pp.] .
  • Kohfeldt, Lady Gregory, The [Fine] Woman Behind the Irish Renaissance (London 1984 NY: Atheneum 1985).
  • Ann Saddlemyer and Colin Smythe, eds., Lady Gregory: Fifty Years After (Gerrards Cross 1987) [include. Gabriel Fallon, ‘Fragments of Memory’, pp.30-34 ; Elizabeth Longford, ‘Lady Gregory and Wilfrid Scawen Blunt’, pp.85-97; John Kelly, ‘“Friendship is All the House I Have”: Lady Gregory and W. B. Yeats’, pp.179ff.; Mary Fitzgerald, ‘Four French Comedies: Lady Gregory’s Translations of Molière’, pp.277-90 ; Smythe, ‘Lady Gregory’s Contribution to Periodicals: A Checklist’, et al.].
  • George F. Butler, ‘The Hero’s Metamorphosis in Lady Gregory’s Cuchulain of Muirthemne: Scholarship and Popularisation’, in Éire-Ireland, 22, 4 (Winter 1987), pp.36-46.
  • E. H. Mikhail, Lady Gregory, An Annotated Bibliography of Criticism (NY: Whitston 1982).
  • Mikhail, Lady Gregory: Interviews and Recollections (NJ: Rowman & Littlefield 1977).
  • Saddlemyer, In Defence of Lady Gregory, Playwright (Chester Springs PA: Chester Springs: Dufour Edns. 1966).
  • James F. Knapp, ‘History against Myth, Lady Gregory and Cultural Discourse’, in Éire-Ireland, 22, 3 (Fall 1987), pp.30-42.
  • Mary Helen Thuente, ‘Lady Gregory and the Book of the People’, in Éire-Ireland 15, 1 (Spring 1980), pp.89-99.
  • James Pethica, ‘“Our Kathleen”: Yeats’s Collaboration with Lady Gregory in the Writing of Cathleen ni Houlihan’, in Warwick Gould., ed., Yeats Annual, 6 (London: Macmillan 1988), pp.3-31.
  • John Quinn, ‘Lady Gregory and the Abbey Theatre’, in The Abbey Theatre: Interviews and Recollections (London: Macmillan 1988), pp.104-07.
  • Edward A. Kopper, Lady Gregory: A Review of Criticism [Mod. Irish Literature Monograph Series] (1991).
  • James F. Knapp, ‘Irish Primitivism and Imperial Discourse: Lady Gregory’s Peasantry’, in Macropolitics of Nineteenth Century Literature: Nationalism, Exoticism, Imperialism (Pennsylvania UP 1991), pp.286-301.
  • Romine Scott, ‘Lady Gregory and the Language of Transgression’, in Arkansas Quarterly, 2 (1993), pp.109-23.
  • Lucy McDiarmid, ‘Augusta Gregory, Bernard Shaw, and the Shewing-Up of Dublin Castle’, in PMLA, 109 (1994), pp.26-44.
  • Declan Kiberd, ‘Lady Gregory and the Empire Boys’, in Inventing Ireland: The Literature of the Modern Nation (London: Jonathan Cape 1995), pp.83-95.
  • Mary Lowe-Evans, ‘Hyacinth and the Wise Man: Lady Gregory’s Comic Enterprise’, in Theresa O’Connor, The Comic Tradition in Irish Women Writers (Florida UP 1996), pp.40-55.
  • Tramble T. Turner, ‘Lady Isabelle Augusta Persse Gregory ’ in Bernice Schrank & William Demastes, ed., Irish Playwrights, 1880-1995: A Research and Production Sourcebook (CT: Greenwood Press 1997), pp.108-23.
  • Selina Guinness, ‘Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland: Irish Folklore and British Anthropology’, in Irish Studies Review (April 1998), pp.37-46.
  • Patrica Lysaght, ‘Perspectives on Narrative Commonication and Gender: Lady Augusta Gregory’s Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland (1920)’, in Fabula, 39 (1998), 256-76pp.
  • Anne Fogarty, ‘A Woman of the House: Gender and Nationalism in the Writings of Augusta Gregory’, in Border Crossings: Irish Women Writers and National Identities, ed. Kathryn Kirkpatrick (Dublin: Wolfhound Press; Alabama UP 2000), [Chap. 5].
  • Seán & Lois Tobin, eds., Lady Gregory Autumn Gatherings: Reflections at Coole (Galway [2001]), 218pp. [contribs. incl. Katie Donovan, John Quinn, Lorna Reynolds, Bruce Arnold, Declan Kiberd and Catriona Clutterbuck].
  • Greg Winston, ‘Redefining Coole: Lady Gregory, Class Politics, and the Land War’, in Colby Quarterly, 37:3 (Sept. 2001), p. 205-222 [available online].
  • Colm Tóibín, Lady Gregory’s Toothbrush (Lilliput Press 2002), 127pp.
  • Declan Kiberd, ‘Augusta Gregory’s Cuchulain: The Rebirth of the Hero’, in Irish Classics (London: Granta 2000), pp.399-419.
  • James Pethica, ‘Lady Gregory’s Abbey Theatre Drama: Ireland Real and Ideal’, in The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-century Irish Drama, ed. Shaun Richards (Cambridge UP 2003) [Chap. 5.]
  • Irish University Review [“Lady Gregory” Special Issue], 34, 1 (Spring/Summer 2004) [see details].
  • Judith Hill, Lady Gregory: An Irish Life (Sutton Publ. 2005), 432pp., ill. [+8pp. photos].
  • Paul Murphy, ‘Woman as Fantasy Object in Lady Gregory’s Historical Tragedies’, in Women in Irish Drama: A Century of Authorship and Representation, ed. Melissa Sihra (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2007) [q.pp.].
  • George Cusack, The Politics of Identity in Irish Drama: W.B. Yeats, Augusta Gregory and J. M. Synge (London: Routledge 2009), 210pp.
  • Judith Hill, ‘Lady Gregory’, in W. B. Yeats in Context, ed. David Holdeman & Ben Levitas (Cambridge UP 2010) [Chap. 12]
  • Cathy Leeney, ‘Augusta Gregory: Shaping the Image and the Breaking of Love’, in Irish Women Playwrights - 1900-1939 (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 2010), pp.19-58.
  • Judith Hill, Lady Gregory: An Irish life (Cork: Collins Press 2011), 600pp.
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See also A. N. Jeffares, W. B. Yeats: A New Biography (1988) [an important account of the Literary Revival]. Maria DiBattista & Lucy McDiarmid, eds., High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture, 1889-1939 (NY: OUP 1996); R. F. Foster, W. B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. I: The Apprentice Mage (OUP 1997), Vol. II: The Arch-Poet (OUP 2003); Christopher Murray, Twentieth-Century Irish Drama: A Mirror Up to Nation (Manchester UP 1997); Ben Levitas, The Theatre of Nation: Irish Drama and Cultural Nationalism 1890-1916 (Clarendon Press 2002); Lionel Pilkington, Theatre and State in 20th Century Ireland (London: Routledge 2001).

Bibliographical details
Irish University Review
[“Lady Gregory” Special Issue], 34, 1 (Spring/Summer 2004), 212. CONTENTS: Contributors [v]; Anne Fogarty [ed.,] Introduction [viii]; James Pethica, ‘“A Young Man’s Ghost”: Lady Gregory and J. M. Synge’ [1]; Judith Hill, ‘Finding A Voice: Augusta Gregory, Raftery, and Cultural Nationalism, 1899-1900’ [21]; Carla De Petris, ‘Lady Gregory and Italy: A Lasting and Profitable Relationship’ [37]; Sinéad Garrigan Mattar, ‘“Wage For Each People Her Hand Has Destroyed”: Lady Gregory’s Colonial Nationalism’ [49]; Lucy McDiarmid , ‘Lady Gregory, Wilfrid Blunt, and London Table Talk’ [67]; Paige Reynolds , ‘The Making of a Celebrity: Lady Gregory and the Abbey’s First American Tour’ [81]; Michael McAteer , ‘“Kindness in Your Unkindness”: Lady Gregory and History’ [94]; R. F. Foster, ‘Yeats and the Death of Lady Gregory’ [109]; Richard Allen Cave, ‘Revaluations: Representations of Women in the Tragedies of Gregory and Yeats’ [122]; Dawn Duncan, Lady Gregory and the Feminine Journey: The Gaol, Grania and The Story Brought by Brigit’ [133]; Eric Weitz, ‘Lady Gregory’s “Humour of Character”: A Commedia Approach to Spreading the News’ [144]; Cathy Leeney, ‘The New Woman in a New Ireland?: Grania after Naturalism’ [157]; Anthony Roche, ‘Re-Working The Workhouse Ward: McDonagh, Beckett, and Gregory’ [171]; List of Books Reviewed [185]; Books Reviewed by Jarlath Killeen, Shaun Richards, Corinna Salvadori Lonergan, Alex Davis, Jefferson Holdridge, Douglas Archibald  [186]. List of Books Received [209].

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Stephen Brown, Ireland in Fiction [Pt. I] (Dublin: Maunsel 1919) & includes brief biographical notices and summaries of prose works.

Desmond Clarke, Ireland in Fiction [Pt II] (Cork: Royal Carbery 1985), alludes to an obituary article on Lady Gregory by Andrew E. Malone in Dublin Magazine (Jan.-March 1933) in which the author writes, ‘... Her family were of English extraction and its outlook and its sympathies were as British as its political view was Unionist. From her earliest childhood she had been devoted to the peasantry, in her native Galway and the folklore of her native county fascinated her. She learned Irish the more readily to assimilate it ... She originated a curious literary folk dialect which came to be known as Kiltartan. It is doubtful, however, if she ever got anything more than the peasant speech; the mind eluded her. She viewed the peasant from without, from above, and as her outlook was essentially comic, she saw them as figures of fun.’

D. E. S. Maxwell, Modern Irish Drama (Cambridge UP 1984), lists Collected Plays, 4 vols, in The Coole Edition of Lady Gregory’s Writings, gen. eds., Colin Smythe and T. R. Henn (1970), Comedies [Vol. 1]; Tragedies and Tragic Comedies [Vol. 2]; Wonder and Supernatural [Vol. 3]; Translations, Adaptions and Collaborations [Vol. 4], all edited and introduced [Foreword] by Ann Saddlemyer; Also, Spreading the News (Maunsel 1909); The Rising of the Moon (Lon. 1907); other works, Cuchulain of Muirthemne (1902); Gods and Fighting Men (1904); Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland, with 2 essays and notes by W. B. Yeats, 2 vols. (1920); Our Irish Theatre (1913); and Lennox Robinson, ed., Lady Gregory’s Journals (1946).

Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2, selects Cuchulain of Muirthemne [534-40]; Spreading the News [616-24]; The Workhouse Ward [624-29]; REFS & REMS, Shaw, ‘the modern Irish theatre began with Kathleen ni Houlihan of Mr Yeats and Lady Gregory’s Rising of the Moon, in which the old patriotism stirred and wrung its victims; but the theatre thus established called on Young Ireland to write Irish plays and ... the immediate result was a string of plays of Irish life ... in which the heroines proclaimed that they were sick of Ireland &c’ (Composite Autobiography), 498; [517, 518, 519, 521, ‘cultural nationalism’, ed. essay, Terence Brown], images to supplant stage-Irishman of popular theatre [ed., D. E. S. Maxwell], 562; an indispensable mediator, 563; [do., 567], Synge meets Lady Gregory, 717; with Yeats, rejected The Silver Tassie, 720; when Hyde found some Raftery poem in the RIA Lady Gregory found 22 more in another MS, 723; see also pp.770n. 772, 779, 798, 810n, 817n, 825, 818n, 830, 845, 898, 931, 1025, 1026n; and 560, BIOG. Notes on Robert Gregory, 783, 801-03, 817n; and further notes on Lady Gregory at FDA3 86 [helped Joyce], 171 [disapproved of Lennox Robinson’s founding Dublin Drama League], 231, 245n, 484, 548, 571, 655, 1312-13l 1323n.

Helena Sheehan, Irish Television Drama (RTE 1987), RTÉ film, An Fear Suil, writtten by Lady Gregory and directed by Brian MacLochlainn (1966); also The Workhouse Ward, Lady Gregory/Jim Fitzgerald (1963).

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Publishers & Auctioneers
Colin Smythe, Ltd. [publisher to the Lady Gregory Estate], lists Gods and Fighting Men [0-901072-37-0] Paperback £6.95; The Journals, volume 1, Books 1-29 (ed. Daniel J.Murphy) [0-900675-91-8] £40.00; ; The Journals, volume 2, Books 30-44 (ed., Daniel J.Murphy) [0-900675-92-6] £40.00; ; The Kiltartan Books [0-900675-33-0] £20.00; ; Mr Gregory’s Letter-Box, 1813-35 (ed.) [0-900675-41-1] £25.00; ; Poets and Dreamers [0-900675-35-7] £28.00; ; Selected Plays Chosen & Introduced by Mary Fitzgerald [0-86140-099-2] £22.00; ; 0-86140-100-X Paperback £6.95 Collected plays 2: Tragedies and Tragic-Comedies 0-900675-30-6 £22.50 0-86140-017-8 Paperback £6.95 Collected Plays 3: The Wonder and the Supernatural Plays 0-900675-31-4 £25.00; Collected Plays 4: Translations, Adaptations & Collaborations 0-900675-32-2 £22.50 0-86140-019-4 Paperback £6.95 Visions & Beliefs in the West of Ireland 0-900675-25-X £22.50 0-901072-36-2 Paperback £6.95 Douglas Hyde, Selected Plays (With translations by Lady Gregory) 0-86140-095-X £22.50 -096-8 £5.95 Shaw, Lady Gregory, & the Abbey (Editors Dan H.Laurence and Nicholas Grene) 0-86140-278-2 £25.00; Lady Gregory, Fifty Years After (Editors Ann Saddlemyer and Colin Smythe) 0-86140-112-3 £35.00; A Guide to Coole Park, Home of Lady Gregory Colin Smythe 3rd edition 0-86140-382-7 Paperback £4.95 Me & Nu: Childhood at Coole Anne Gregory 0-86140-010-0 Paperback £4.50. [Available at Colin Smythe Ltd., PO Box 4, Gerrards Cross, Colin Smythe, PO BOX 6 Gerrards Cross, Bucks ENGLAND SL9 8XA tel 01753 886000 fax 01753 886469; email & webpage.]

Sotheby’s [Auction Catalogue]: Printed Books formerly in the Library at Coole, The Property of Lady Gregory (London: Sotheby & Co.), Auction Catalogue, 20-21 March 1972 [510 lots]; prefaced by extract from Lady Gregory’s “Coole” (Dolmen 1971), by permission of The Lady Gregory Estate and Colin Smythe, Ltd: ‘After my marriage my husband told me that very soon after he had first met me, and when I knew him but slightly, he had in making his will left to me the choice of any six books in his Library at Coole. After marriage he directed, in his later testament, that not six, but all, should be mine through my lifetime. But is, as seems likely, I am now, through changes, to be divorced from these companionable shelves, I sometimes ponder which among the volumes should I choose from their long accustomed places to go with me for the scanty years or days of eyesight and understanding that remain.’ Goes on to cite titles such as Turnford (Voyages), Frazer (on Persia), Twiss (on Portugal and Spain) and Orme (on Hindustan), also naming Robert Gregory, the friend of Burke and Fox and builder of the Library - which incl. Institutes of Hindu Law and oriental translations by Charles Wilkinson [&c.], Singalese works collected by her husband, and those of Richard Gregory, ‘the one of my forerunners I feel most drawn to’, whose ‘romantic elopement [and] fabled riches make still the kernel of folk stories in Kiltartan’; further cites shelves filled by her husband with editions of the classics, a ‘more spacious shelf below [that] holds larger volumes [such as] a volume of Tragedies of Eschylus [1777], printed at Norwich in such “clean letters” as our wandering Irish poet Raftery admired; the Royal arms on the cover; its bookplate “Carlton House Libary” [... &c.]’ She ends: ‘I shall be sorry to leave all these volumes among which I have lived. They have felt the pressure of my fingers. They have been my friends.’ See specimen contents under Sir William Gregory, References, noting that some of the volumes bear her book plate and other matter tipped in relating to her, infra.)

Hyland Books (Catalogue 214) list The Image, A Play in Three Acts (1st ed. 1910); Hyacinth Halvey (1st sep. edn. 1910); The Kiltartan Moliere [The Miser, The Doctor in Spite of Himself; The Rogueries of Scapin] (1910); New Comedies (1st ed. 1913). Hyland Cat. 220 (1995) lists Seven Short Plays (NY Edn. n.d.) [signed copy from L. A. G. Strong to John Lehmann].

Library of Herbert Bell (Belfast) holds Lady Gregory, ed., Sir William Gregory, KCMG, An Autobiography (London 1894) [Signed ‘To J.B. Yeats from A Gregory Coole 1899]; Cuchulain of Muirthemne (London 1902); Lennox Robinson, ed., Lady Gregory’s Journals 1916-1930 (London n.d.); The Kiltartan Molière (Dublin 1910); Seven Short Plays (Dublin 1911); New Comedies (New York 1913); The Golden Apple, A Play for Children (London 1916); The Image & Other Plays (London 1923); the Story Brought By Brigit (London 1924); Elizabeth Coxhead, ed., Lady Gregory, Selected Plays (London 1962); Coxhead, Lady Gregory, A Literary Portrait (London 1966). Also reprint edns., The Coole Edition of her Works in 12 vols.; Visions and Beliefs in the West of Ireland (1970), Cuchulain of Muirthemne (1970), Gods and Fighting Men (1970), Our Irish Theatre (1972), The Comedies (1970), The Tragedies (1970), Wonders and Supernatural (1970), The Translations and Adaptations (1970), The Kiltartan Books (1971), Hugh Lane (1973), Poets and Dreamers (1974), The Book of Saints and Wonders (1971), Seventy Years 1852-1922 (1974); The Kiltartan Molière (Dublin 1910); also Vere R. T. Gregory, The House of Gregory (Dublin 1943).

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(Literary) Ideals: In 1901 Lady Gregory edited Ideals in Ireland, with contributions from Russell, Yeats, Hyde, et al., where John Eglinton has previously issued under the title Literary Ideals in Ireland (1899), a collection of essays by Yeats, Eglinton, George [“AE”] Russell and Larminie originally published as a controversy in the Daily Express - in which collection the essay by AE, in the last position, bears the same name as the title of the whole. [See details under John Eglinton, supra.]

Under Twenty-Five (Gaiety Theatre 14 March 1903): an early version was published in New York under the title A Losing Game because the editor of The Gael thought that the card-game ‘25’’ at which the returning emigrant deliberately loses his money to the husband of his beloved would be unknown to Americans.

McDonough’s Wife, a play by Lady Gregory, was first published in New Irish Comedies (NY & London 1913).

Spreading the News commonly copied as The Spreading of the News [err.], as in framed photography of the premier cast, in Glynn’s Hotel, Gort, Co. Galway; the cast represented incl. P. Mac Shuibhlaig; W. G. Fay; Sara Allgood; Máire Ní Gharbhaigh; Arthur Sinclair (poss. from Irish Nat. Theatre tour to Loughrea, organised by Gerald O’Donovan, 1901).

1916 Commemoration: The Abbey theatre commemorated the 1916 Rising in 1949 with three one-act plays including Lady Gregory’s Dervorgilla (Bríd Ní Loinsigh, Michael Hennessy, May Craig, and Philip Flynn) and The Rising of the Moon (Walter Macken and Harry Brogan, resp. as the Sargeant and the Ballad Singer); also Lost Light by Roibeard Ó Faracháin. (See The Irish Times, Tues. April 19, 1949; rep. in The Irish Times, 12 Sept. 2009 [suppl].)

W. B. Yeats: According to Robert Greacen, in a review of Judith Hill, Lady Gregory first met “Yates” on the same occasion as Coventry Patmore in the home of Lord Morris, and found him ‘every inch a poet’ sporting a black cloak, a black sombrero, and black tie, before meeting him again two years later with Paul Bourget, Arthur Symons and others - a meeting that marked the beginning of a long friendship. (Books Ireland, Dec. 2005).

Hugh Lane: Lady Gregory joined with [i.e., rallied] George Russell, Douglas Hyde, Somerville & Ross, Emily Lawless, George Russell, and W. B. Yeats in ‘An Appeal from Irish Authors’ (Freeman’s Journal, 13 Dec. 1904), protesting against Corporation judgement on Hugh Lane’s gallery of modern art. (See Adrian Frazier, ‘Paris, Dublin: Looking at George Moore Looking at Manet’, in New Hibernia Review, 1, 1, Spring 1997, pp.19-30; also Alan Denson, Letters from AE (London: Abelard-Schuman 1961), p.54 - as given under Jane Barlow, “Notes”, supra.

W. B. Yeats: Eleanour Hull includes Lady Gregory"s poem by Rafterty on Mary Hynes in her Poembook of the Gael (1913) using the same version as the one given by Yeats under the title “Dust Hath Closed Helen’s Eye” with the sole difference that she spells the place-name Baile laoi for his Ballylee. in the editorial note appended to the poem where she cites Lady Gregory as the author, she writes: ‘The title is added by Mr. W. B. Yeats to an article written by him on this poem in The Dome (New Series, vol. iv.). Lady Gregory informs me that Mr. Yeats has slightly worked over her translation.’ (Hull, op. cit., p.323.) Yeats, writing of it in The Celtic Twlight (1893) where he quotes it in full as part of the chapter entitled “Dust Hath Closed Helen’s Eye” and dealing with Ballylee and Mary Hynes as its famous beauty and other matters relating to it, says:

‘I first heard of the poem from an old woman who fives about two miles further up the river, and who remembers Raftery and Mary Hynes. She says, “I never saw anybody so handsome as she was, and I never will till I die,” [...]’ - and further, of the same woman: ‘She sang the poem to a friend and to myself in Irish, and every word was audible and expressive, as the words in a song were always, as I think, before music grew too proud to be the garment of words, flowing and changing with the flowing and changing of their energies. The poem is not as natural as the best Irish poetry of the last century, for the thoughts are arranged in a too obviously traditional form, so the old poor half-blind man who made it has to speak as if he were a rich farmer offering the best of everything to the woman he loves, but it has naïve and tender phrases. The friend that was with me has made some of the translation, but some of it has been made by the country people themselves. I think it has more of the simplicity of the Irish verses than one finds in most translations.’ (Gutenberg Project Edn., online [CT, 1893-1902], p.38-39.)

The ‘friend’ is Lady Gregory. How much of the translation was made by "the country people themselves" and how much by her and by him is not known. [BS 08.04.2023].

St. John Ervine, Some Impressions of My Elders (NY 1922), incl. remarks on Lady Gregory in a section more generally on Yeats: ‘When one remembers that she has established a considerable reputation as a dramatist on two continents entirely on the strength of a half-dozen one act plays, it is impossible to doubt that she is at least as skilful as he [Yeats] in drawing attention to herself.’ (p.260.)

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Maud Gonne reports that she was confronted by Lady Gregory (‘a queer old lady, rather like Queen Victoria’) who asked her ‘if I would marry Willie Yeats’, and adds that Gregory was ‘rather relieved’ when she said no. (See Anthony Jordan, The Yeats Gonne MacBride Triangle, Westport 2000, pp.15-16.)

G. B. Shaw called her ‘the greatest living Irishwoman’ and attacked the Irish nationality of Devoy (‘not an Irish name’); the company was taken to court by Irish-Americans in Philadelphia, the plaintiff being Joseph McGarrrity; in the NY Evening Sun, during the troublesome Abbey American tour of 1911-12; Lady Gregory advised by G. B. Shaw to leave Ireland for Scotland in 1925, ‘Sell Coole and settle here, you will find all the beauties of Irland with the drawback of Irish inhabitants’; see Lucy McDiarmid, reviewing Dan H Laurence and Nicholas Grene, Shaw, Lady Gregory and the Abbey, A correspondence and a Record (Gerrards Cross 1993).

Alexander Irvine: Irvine dedicated his My Lady of the Chimney Corner (4th imp. 1914) ‘To/Lady Gregory / and / The Players of the Abbey Theatre / Dublin’.

Eoin MacNeill wrote in a letter to Lady Gregory on reading Cuchulain of Muirthemne, ‘A few more books like it, and the Gaelic League will want to suppress you on a double indictment, to wit, depriving the Irish language of her sole right to express the innermost Irish mind, and secondly, investing the Anglo-Irish language with a literary dignity it has never hitherto possessed.’ (Ladey Gregory, Seventy Years, Gerrards Cross, 1974, p.402; cited in Michael Cronin, Translating Ireland: Translations, Languages, Cultures, Cork UP 1996, p.150.)

James Joyce (1) In Ulysses Buck Mulligan refers to Gregory of the Golden Mouth, in a reference to a place-name from J. M. Synge’s Riders to the Sea, being the Bay where the body of Bartley is washed up.

Ulysses (“Scylla & Charybdis”) - Buck Mulligan: ‘Longworth is awfully sick, he said, after what you wrote about that old hake Gregory. O you inquisitional drunken jew jesuit! She gets you a job on the paper and [277] then you go and slate her drivel to Jaysus. Couldn’t you do the Yeats touch?’ (Bodley Head Edn., 1960; pp.277-78.) E. V. Longworth was the editor of the Dublin Daily Express and Lady Gregory’s Poets and Dreamers the book in question (26 March 1903; Critical Writings of James Joyce [1959] Viking Press 1965, pp.102-05.

James Joyce (2): Joyce wrote a limerick on Lady Gregory: ‘There was an old lady named Gregory / Who cried, “Come, all ye poets in beggary.” / She found her imprudence / when hundreds of students / Cried, “We’re in that noble category.”’ (Quoted in Richard Ellmann, James Joyce 1959 [q.p.]); also in Stan Gebler Davies, James Joyce: A Portrait of the Artist, 1975, p.116 - remarking that Padraic Colum could recite it. Note that the authorship is disputed with Gogarty but generally ascribed to Joyce.

Oliver St John Gogarty - who wrote that Lady Gregory mostly inspired terror in Abbey actors - remarked of W. B. Yeats’s tour of Italy with her in 1907 that it must have been like seeing it from inside it from inside a Black Maria. (See R. F. Foster, R. F. Foster, W . B. Yeats: A Life - I: “The Apprentice Mage”, OUP 1997, p.367, citing Horace Reynold’s diary for 6 July 1927 [held in Harvard].)

Harry Clarke: ‘The Story Brought by Brigit’ by Lady Gregory is the subject of a panel in the stained-glass “Geneva Window” of Harry Clarke (1929).

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Mervyn Wall: Wall portrays Lucian Brewse Burke, the hero, writing thus to the newspapers: ‘During the fifteen years office of the de Valera Government mansions all over the country were levelled to provide material for labourers’ cottages or “for the sake of the lead in the roof”; and no one in power raised a hand to save them. Countless material relics of our history were swept away. I need scarcely mention Coole, the residence of Lady Gregory and the birthplace of our literary movement. Today event he site of the house can scarcely be identified. The castle at Barrettstown is the only object which gives dignity to that town, and not only its it a piece of our country’s history but it is associated with one of the greatest of our love stories. There is now a new government in power ... Are they also indifferent, and must we few in this country who care for the things of the spirit reconcile ourselves to living in a land of labourers’ cottages and country council houses? (Leaves for the Burning, 1952, p.18; cited in Patrick Rafroidi, ‘A Question of Inheritance: The Anglo-Irish Tradition’, in Rafroidi and Maurice Harmon, eds, The Irish Novel in Our Time, Université de Lille 1975-76, p.13.)

Derek Mahon has written, wrote, ‘Molière is at home everywhere and in every age’ adding that Lady Gregory play L’avare [based on Molière] had a good run at the Abbey. (q.p.), in his Preface to High Time: A Comedy in One Act (Field Day 1984; Gallery 1985).

Coole Park, near Gort, Co. Galway; home of Lady Gregory; guests icl. W. B. Yeats (20 years each summer from 1897 to his marriage), O’Casey, Shaw, Synge, Hyde, “AE” (George Russell), et al. The trunk of a robust copper beech in the garden holds many signatures - the ‘Autograph tree’ which sports the initials of Jack Yeats (with and an engraved donkey from his hand), Synge, Hyde (An Craoibhin), John Masefield, Augustus John (who also carved his signature at the top of the tree), Katherine Tynan, Violet Martin, Lady Gregory herself and her son Robert Gregory. The Coole Park estate was orig. 8,000 acres. The house was built by Robert Gregory, and English colonial officer who purchased the estate in 1768, having made money as chairman of the Honourable East India Company. He was sometime MP for Rochester. Arthur Young visited Coole in 1778 and remarked on Robert Gregory’s ‘noble nursery, for which he is making plantations.’ An eldest son was disinherited on account of his passion for cock-fighting but it attributed with the feat of transporting the statue of Maecenas in the walled garden across Europe by ox-cart. A second son William Gregory inherited instead, and became Under-Secretary for Ireland, 1812-32. He was the first in the line to treat Coole as his home, and planted the pinetum in the Nut Wood, being a self-confessed ‘Coniferomaniac’ (Feehan & O’Donovan, p.61.) In 1855 he had to sell off two-thirds of his estate to pay for racing debts. Having failed to provide his tenants with leases, he abandoned them to the incoming rack-rent owners and emigration in spite of good intentions. [Cont.]

Coole Park (cont.): William Henry Gregory (1817-1892), the son of William [Under-Sec. for Ireland], served as Governor of Ceylon and was an MP for his own constituency during the Famine and after. In 1880, following the death of first wife, he married Isabella Augusta Persse of Roxborough House, then 27. The sale of the remainder of the estate to the Encumbered Estates Board [Land Commission] was initiated by Robert in 1908 and later concluded by his widow Margaret in 1920 - on the condition that Lady Gregory retain life-tenancy. The house and demesne were sold on to the Irish Forestry Commission in 1927. Three months after Lady Gregory’s death in 1932 the entire contents of the house were auctioned while house itself was pointlessly demolished by a farmer who acquired it in 1941 [var. 1942]. Lady Gregory wrote: ‘I have lived there and loved it these forty years and through the guests who have stayed there it counts for much in the awakening of the spiritual and intellectual side of our country. If there is trouble now, and it is dismantled and left to ruin, that will be the whole country’s loss.’ (Q.source.) Among the many poems that W. B. Yeats wrote at and about Coole Park are: ‘I walked among the seven woods of Coole’, ‘In the Seven Woods’, ‘Coole Park, 1929’, ‘Coole Park and Ballylee, 1931’, and ‘The New Faces’. See Lady Gregory, Coole (1931; enl. edn., Gerrard Cross 1971), and John Feehan & Grace O’Donovan, The Magic of Coole, [Dublin:] OPW 1993) - the latter dealing with the natural history of the estate and its immediate region.

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Tithe-proctor: In Captain Rock (1824) Thomas Moore cited a report in the Galway Advertiser (18 Oct. 1822) reporting that ‘[a]t the quarter-sessions at Gort, one tithe-proctor processed eleven hundred persons for tithes. They were all, or most, of the lower order of farmers or peasants: - the expense of each process about eight shillings.’ (Captain Rock, 1824, p.297n.)

Well, well!: The Well of Loneliness (1928), the celebrated lesbian novel Radclyffe Hall, appears to have taken its title from Lady Gregory’s translation of “Donal Og”. (Cited by Teresa Pitt at Goodreads online - during 2017). The poem - which comes as a climax at the end of the chapter on West Irish Ballads" in The Kiltartan Poetry Book (1919) - bears the title “The Grief of a Girl’s Heart”. It reads in part:

[...] O Donall og [sic], it is I would be better to you than a high, proud, spendthrift lady: I would milk the cow; I would bring help to you; and if you were hard pressed, I would strike a blow for you.

O, ochone, and it’s not with hunger or with wanting food, or drink, or sleep, that I am growing thin, and my life is shortened; but it is the love of a young man has withered me away.

It is early in the morning that I saw him coming, going along the road on the back of a horse; he did not come to me; he made nothing of me; and it is on my way home that I cried my fill.

When I go by myself to the Well of Loneliness,   I sit down and I go through my trouble; when I see the world and do not see my boy, he that has an amber shade in his hair. [...]

See- RICORSO holds copies of The Kiltartan Poem Book (1919) in .pdf. and .docx formats; also available at Gutenberg Project [online], and the University of Pennsylvania Digital Library > Women > “A Celebration of Women Writers” - Lady Gregory - online [both accessed 26.03.2023].

Note further that Lady Gregory writes in the Introduction to her book that ‘An Aran man, repeating to me "The Grief of a Girl’s Heart" in Irish told me it was with that song his mother had often sung him to sleep as a child.’ (Kiltartan Poem Book, Putnam 1919 - Intro. Sect. IV. [q.pp.].) In fuller remarks, Lady Gregory writes: ‘I have one ballad at least to give, that shows, even in my prose translation, how near that day may be, if the language that holds the soul of our West Irish people can be saved from the“West Briton” destroyer. There are some verses in it that attain to the intensity of great poetry, though I think less by the creation of one than by the selection of many minds; the peasants who have sung or recited their songs from one generation to another, having instinctively sifted away by degrees what was trivial, and kept only what was real, for it is in this way the foundations of literature are laid. I first heard of this ballad from the South; but when I showed it to an Aran man, he said it was well known there, and that his mother had often sung it to him when he was a child. It is called “The Grief of a Girl’s Heart” - [here quoting “Donall og” in full].’ (Ibid., pp,64-65.)

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Portraits (1): an oil by John Butler Yeats [NGI]; Lady Gregory by Antonio Mancini c.1905, Municipal Gallery; see in Brian O’Doherty, The Irish Imagination 1959-1971 (1971), Rosc Exhib. Cat.

Portraits (2): also Lady Gregory by Jacob Epstein (see Anne Cruikshank, Ulster Mus. 1965); also rep. in A. N. Jeffares, W. B. Yeats: Man and Poet (London: Routledge 1949 & Edns.), pls., between pp.182-83.

Portraits (3): portrait in oil by Gerald Festus Kelly (b.1879); and another by William Orpen in portrait in the National Gallery of Ireland; a bronze figure by Melanie le Brocquy entitled ‘Under the Tulipa Tree’ (c.1985), held in private collections.

Berg Collection (New York Public Library holds extensive papers of Lady Gregory including chiefly AMS of poems, also letters with correspondence relating to royal visit of Edward VII, and a copy of James Joyce’s limerick on Lady Gregory (‘poets in beggary ...’; as infra) in her own hand, Irish Statesman, dated 1 June 1928, and a copy of a 1p. letter from Joyce, 22 Nov. 1902, 7 St Peter’s Tce. Cabra.

Note also the phrases given to Stephen Dedalus in Telemachus episode of Ulysses: ‘That’s folk, he said very earnestly, for your book, Haines, Five lines of text and ten pages of notes about the folk and fish gods of Dundrum. Printed by the wiered sisters in the year of the big wind.’

Death-dates: Lady Gregory’s death is given as 28 [sic] April 1932 in Jeffares, 1988; 22 April, in Boylan, Dictionary of Irish Biography (1988); but correctly as first hour of 23 Monday April 1932, in Journals (ed. Murphy). In Commentary on the Poems of W B Yeats (1988), Jeffares gives the date of the demolition of Coole as 1942 (p.93).

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