Douglas Hyde (1860-1949)

[Dubhghlas De hIde]; b. 17th Jan., Portahard, between Frenchpark and Ballaghderreen, nr. Castlerea, Co. Roscommon, son of Rev. Arthur Hyde, a hard-drinking Church of Ireland rector at Tibohine, Frenchpark, and his wife Elizabeth [Bessy] whose paternal home in Castlerea was the place of his birth; raised at Kilmactranny rectory, Co. Roscommon, where his father was vicar, before moving to Frenchpark, 1867; ed. at home due to illness; entered TCD (Divinity), studying Irish, 1880; winner of Bedell Scholarship for Irish, 1881; took gold medal in modern languages, 1884; contrib. “Plea for the Irish Language” to Dublin University Review (July 1886), a letter responding to an editorial query as to what it was Dr. Hyde wanted for Irish; grad. LL.D., 1888; ‘Some Words about Unpublished Literature‘, to The Gael (7 Jan 1888);
issued Leabar Sgéuaigheachta (1889), being stories and poems gathered from various narrators - some transcribed word for word, others recalled afterwards; also Cois na Teinneadh (1890), and English versions of these two as Beside the Fire: A Collection of Irish Gaelic Folk Stories (1891); contrib. letter to Daily Express over Atkinson’s testimony on teaching of Gaelic before Intermediate Education Committee, calling him ‘a prig, and one of the first order’, 25 Feb. 1889; attends by chance first meeting of Irish Literary Society in London, 13 Feb 1891; contrib. contrib. ‘Gaelic Folk Songs’, in The Nation (26 April 1890), introducing the first of the “The Songs of Connacht”]; appt. professor [viz., lecturer.] in Mod. Lang. University of New Brunswick, Canada, as locum tenens for Prof. Stockley, 1891-92; contrib. article in Irish Ecclesiastical Record urging priests to support language movement;
applied unsuccessfully for the Chair of History & English at Queens Univ., Belfast, Sept. 1891; settled in Roscommon, 1892; gave the inaugural lecture of the Irish National Literary Society under the title ‘The Necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland’, 25 Nov. 1892; publ. with others by George Sigerson and Charles Gavan Duffy as The Revival of Irish Literature (1894); elected President of Irish Literary Society, 1892; founded Gaelic League with Eoin MacNeill and others - following the planning meeting at Wynn’s Hotel; elected President of same, 1893-1915; issued Amhráin Grádh Chúige Connacht/Love Songs of Connacht (1893); m. Lucy Comineta Annette Kurtz [var. Annette] (d.1939), 10 Oct 1893, with whom a dg. Nuala; signed his name in the registry book in Irish; lectured before Belfast Naturalists’ Field Club [aka Philosophical Soc.] on Celtic language and literature, Nov. 1894;
issued The Three Sorrows of Storytelling (1895); issued The Story of Gaelic Literature (1894) [var. 1895], as ‘an answer to those who still repeated the popular that there is no literature in Irish’; issued The Story of Early Irish Literature (1897); A Sgéalaidhe Gaodhalach (Cuid 1, 1898; Cuid 2, 1899; Cuid 3, 1901), Do., in French trans. (1899), and version in Irish type (1933); overlooked for Chair of Irish at TCD in favour of Rev. John Edward Harnett Murphy, 1896; issued A Literary History of Ireland (1899) - which reached 7 editions by 1922 - and Medieval Tales from the Irish, Vol. 1 (ITS 1899); responded vigorously to Robert Atkinson and J. P. Mahaffy's contention that there was nothing worth studying in Irish literature at the Intermediate Education Commission of 1899 by circulating their remarks to Rudolf Thurneysen, Ernst Windisch, Ludwig Christian Stern, all in Germany; Holger Pedersen in Denmark, and Georges Dottin in France, submitting their replies to the Commission, resulting in the establishment of Irish as a school subject; issued Ubhla den Chroibh (1900), poems; also Trí Sgéalta (1902), stories;
wrote Casadh an tSugáin [The Twisting of the Rope], the first play in Irish to be produced on the professional stage, presented by the Gaelic League Amateur Dramatic Society [var. Ormond Dramatic Theatre Society] at Gaiety Th. (21 Oct 1901), and directed by William Fay (it being and the last production of Irish Literary Theatre before the split); appeare on the same stage as Moore and Yeats’s Diarmuid and Grania, with Hyde in the principal part as the poet Hanrahan and the members of Inghinidhe-na-h-Eireann in other roles; ed. for Irish Theatre Society, Ciolla an Fhuiga (1901); issued Filidheacht Gaedhalach (1903) and Abhráin an Reachtabhraigh (1903; enl. as Abhráin agus Dánta an Reachtabhraigh (1933); other plays incl. “The Bursting of the Bubble”, “An Pósadh”, “An Cleamhnas”, “King James and the Tinker and the Fairy” (1905); travelled in America, 1905-06, collecting funds for the League (viz., $64,000; otherwise £11,000), and received Freedom of Dublin, Cork and Kilkenny in recognition of that achievement on his return;
appt. member of Royal Commission on University Education, 1906; answered Anthony Traill in university debate by charging that the University of Dublin was only interested in educating Anglo-Ireland; estab. Gaelic a matriculation subject for NUI entrance, 1908 - in face of opposition from the Catholic hierarchy; appt. 1st Professor of Modern Irish, UCD; 1909-32; issued Sgéaluidhe Fior na Seachtmhaine (1909); appt. Dean of Faculty of Celtic Studies, and elected to Senate of NUI, 1909-19; issued Legends, Saints and Sinners: Collected and translated from the Irish (1915); The History of Charlemagne [ed. and trans. from Book of Lismore et al.; ITS Vol. 19] (1919); An Leath-ranna (1922); issued Maistín an Bhéarla (1913), a play; resigned the Gaelic League presidency at Dundalk Ard Fheis, 1915, when the aim of making Ireland ‘free of foreign domination’ (which he characterised as ‘flaming indiscretion’) was added to the articles; object of a letter from Thomas Ashe, a member of the  Coiste Gnótha [Executive], denying that the executive had dealt unfairly with Hyde (Irish Independent);  co-opted Senator of the Irish Free State, 1925-26; appt. chairman Irish Folklore Institute, 1930-34; retired to Ratra, nr. Frenchpark, a house purchased for him by the Gaelic League, 1934; awarded the [Lady] Gregory Medal of the IAL, 1937;
later works incl. Oct Sgéalta Ó Choillte Mágnach (1936); Imeasg na nGaedheal ins Oiléan Úr (1937); also issued an autobiography up to 1915 as Mise agus an Conradh (1931); elected first President of Ireland under the 1937 Constitution, 25 June 1938, becoming the first occupant of the Viceregal Lodge, renamed Áras an Uachtaráin; went on to write Sgéalta Thomáis Uí Chatasaigh (1939); The Children of Lir (1941); Songs of Columcille (1942); Dánta Éagsamhla (1942); also issued a catalogue of the library of Sir John Gilbert, with D. J. O’Donoghue (1918); suffered a stroke in April 1940;
did not seek re-election, June, 1945; settled in former Secretary to Viceroy's house adjacent to Áras an Uachtaráin - renamed Little Ratra after his Roscommon home; d. 12 July 1949; he was given a state funeral at St. Patrick’s Cathedral - the Catholic govt. ministers’ awaiting outside in their cars to follow the cortège - with the exception of Noel Browne and Erskine Childers representing de Valera; bur. at Portahard Churchyard, nr. Frenchpark, with his family; the absence of the ministers later made the subject of an outraged poem by Austin Clarke; P. S. O’Hegarty prepared a bibliography in 1939; a collection of his manuscripts is held in the Hardiman Library, UCG (Galway); James Stephens called him ‘the fairy godmother of the new Ireland’; John Butler Yeats painted his portrait in 1904. PI JMC DBIV IF DIB DIW DIH DIL OCEL KUN OCIL FDA
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[ RTÉ gives an account of the antagonism to Hyde’s principles of political impartiality at the 1915 Ard Feis of the Gaelic League, leading to his resignation - online; accessed 04.10.2021. ]

DH TCD Scholarship
DH President

[ See also entry on Douglas Hyde at UCD Archives - online. ]

  Love Songs of Connacht (editions)
  • Abhráin Grádh Chúige Chonnacht / Love Songs of Connacht (Dublin: Gill 1893; 2nd Edn. 1895) [bilingual text on facing pages with literal English translation at foot; 2pp, prefatory letter to Dr. George Sigerson].
  • Abhráin Grádh Chúige Chonnacht / The Love Songs of Connacht, being the fourth chapter of the Songs of Connacht, collected and trans. by D. Hyde [rev. edn.] (Dundrum: Cuala Press 1904), 21cm.; Do. [5th edn.] (London: Fisher Unwin 1909).
  • Abhráin ghrádh chúige Connacht: Love Songs of Connaught, by Douglas Hyde (Dublin 1933) 128pp. [text entirely in Irish].
  • Abhráin ghrádh chúige Connacht: ar n-a gcruinniughadh agus ar n-a bhfoillsiughadh de’n chéad uair / le Dubhglas de h-Íde [An Craoibhín Aoibhinn]; Ar n-a gcur amach anois arís agus tuilleadh Abhrán leo (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1950), 128pp..

Rep. editions

    • Míchéal Ó hAodha, ed. & intro., Abhráin Grádh Chúige Chonnacht / Love Songs of Connacht [enl. facs. edn.] (Shannon: IUP 1969), x, viii, 158pp., 8°. [see details].
    • Songs of Connacht, introduced by Dominic Daly (NY: Barnes & Noble [1973]), xii, 371, xvipp., ill., 23cm.
    • Breandán Ó Conaire [eag.], ed. & intro., Abhráin Chúige Chonnacht I-III / The Songs of Connacht I-III - Ó Cearbhalláin, amhráin molta na mban, amhráin óil[songs of O’Carolan, songs praising women, drinking songs] / Dubhghlas de hÍde / (Blackrock: IAP 1985), 156pp., 22cm. [see details].
Songs of Raftery
  • Abhráin atá Leagta ar a Reachtúire: Songs Ascribed to Raftery, being the fifth chapter of The Songs of Connacht, Now for the first time collected, edited and translated by Douglas Hyde in Songs of Connacht, Part V (Baile Atha Cliath: Gill agus a Mhac [Gill & Son] 1903), 371, xvipp., 8º. [Irish & Eng. on facing pages]; and Do. [another edn.] (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1933), 283pp., ill. [port.]
  • Abhráin agus dánta an reachtabhraigh : ar na gCruinniu ghadh agus ar na bhfoillsiughadh den chéad uair / le Dubhglas de-Íde [Athcló Edn.] (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1969), 283pp.
  Religious Songs of Connacht
  • Abhráin Diadha Chuíge Connacht: or, The Religious Songs of Connacht: a collection of poems, stories, prayers, satires, ranns, charms, &c; now for the first time collected; ed. & trans., being the sixth and seventh chapters of “The Songs of Connacht”, 2 vols. (Dublin: M.H. Gill; London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1906), v. [864]pp., 19 cm.; and Do. [facs. edn.] (Shannon: IUP 1972), 868pp., 23cm. [bilingual text].
Other collections
  • Abhráin Chuilm de Bhailís (Baile Atha Cliath: ar n-a cur amac do Connrad na Gaedilge 1904), xxvii, (3), 52pp., port., 22 cm. incls. poems of Douglas Hyde and Padraic Pearse?].

Query: Amhráin Chúige Chonnacht: An Leath Rann: Dubhglas de h-Íde (an Craoibhín) do bhailígh(Baile Átha Cliath [Dublin]: M. Lester Tta. 1922), 1p. ß, [5]-79pp. [20 cm.; trans. on facing pages; chars. in older Irish orthography & type]; Do. [another edn.] (1930)

  • Casadh an tSúgáin, in Samhain (Dublin 1901) [see details].
  • An Cleamhnas, in Gaelic Journal (1904) [one act play].
  • trans. as Drama breithe Chríosta: an Craoibhin Aoibhinn do sgriobh, trans. by Lady Gregory (Dublin 1905).
  • An Pósadh, dráma aon-ghnímh: An Craoibhi´n Aoibhinn do scríobh (19??)
Plays (trans. by Lady Gregory)
  • The Twisting of the Rope [Casadh an tSúgáin], in Poets and Dreamers (1903).
  • Drama Breite Críosta: An Craoibín Aoibinn do sgriob , trans. by Lady Gregory (Dublin: Gill & Son [1904]), 1, 23 , 1; 18cm. [interleaved].
Plays (reprints of 1934-35)
  • Maistín an Bheurla; dráma aon-ghnímh [Eagar nuadh/new edn.] (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1934), 8°.
  • An Naomh ar Iarraidh, &c. [Eagar nuadh/new edn.] (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1934), 8°.
  • Pleusgadh na Bulgóide: Dra´ma suilt i naon ghníomh [An dara heagar/3nd edn.] (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1934), 8°.
  • An Tinceur agus an tSidheóg. Dráma éinghnímh [Eagar nuadh/new edn.] (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1934).
  • An Pósadh, dráma dráma aon-ghnímh: An Craoibhi´n Aoibhinn do scri´obh [Cluichí Gearra, Vol. 18](1934), 31pp.
  • Righ Seumus[Cluichí Gearra, Vol. 19; Dara heagar] (Baile Átha Cliath 1934), 22pp., 19cm.
  • Breith Chríosta: dráma aon-ghnímh (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1935), 20pp.
Selected plays
  • Gareth & Janet Dunleavy, ed., Selected Plays of Douglas Hyde [Irish Drama Selections Series, No. 7] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1991) [in Lady Gregory’s trans. & containing “The Twisting of the Rope”; “The Tinker and the Sheeog”; “The Marriage”; “The Lost Saint”; “The Nativity”; “The Bursting of the Bubble”; “King James”; and “The Matchmaking”, with a 30-page intro. and a selected checklist by Frances-Jane French].
Note: Several of Hyde’s plays were published in Lady Gregory’s Poets and Dreamers: Studies & Translations from the Irish (Dublin: Hodges & Figgis; NY: Charles Schribner’s Sons 1903) as ‘An Craoibhin’s Plays’ - viz., The Twisting of the Rope [p.200ff.; The Marriage [p.216ff.]; The Lost Saint [p.236ff.]; The Nativity [p.244ff -all available in RICORSO Library > Irish Classics > Lady Gregory > via Index [infra] - or view as .pdf in this frame or in a separate window. A Word version is also available as .docx.] See also Lady Gregory under Hyde > Commentary - infra.)
Note: Casadh an tSugain / Twisting of the Rope was printed bilingually on facing pages (Irish r./English l.) in Irish Literature, gen. ed. Justin McCarthy (Washington 1904), pp.3988-4009 [accessible at Internet Archive - online.]
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Fiction& Folklore
  • Leabhar Sgéulaigheachta cruinnighthe agus curtha le chéile le Dúbhghlas de h-Íde (Baile Atha Cliath: Gill, 1889), vii, 261pp. [18cm].
  • Beside the Fire: A Collection of Irish Gaelic Folk Stories (London: Alfred Nutt 1890), and Do. [facs. rep. of 1890 Edn.] (NY: Lemma Pub. Corp. 1973), lviii, 203pp., 23 cm.; and Do. [facs. of 1910 London Edn.] (Blackrock: IAP 1978), lviii, 203pp..
  • Contes Irlandais/An Sgéaluidhe Gaedhealach, with French translations by Georges Dottin and a preface by Donatien Laurent (Rennes 1893; 1937), and Do. [rep.] (Gene`ve: Slatkine Reprints 1980), 687pp. [var. pagings], ill..
  • Five Irish Stories Translated from the Irish of the “Sgeuluidhe gaodhalach”(Dublin: Gill & Son [1896]), 55, [1]p. [16cm.]
  • Four Irish stories: Tales XI, XIII, XIV, XIX, trans. from Part II of the Sgeuluidhe Gaodhalach by D. Hyde (Dublin: Gaelic League 1898), 14cm.
  • Giolla an fhiugha, or, The Lad of the Ferule: Eactra Cloinne Rig na h-Ioruaide, or, Adventures of the Children of the King of Norway,ed. with trans., notes, and glossary by Douglas Hyde [Irish Texts Society, Vol. 1 (London: David Nutt [for ITS] 1899), q.pp. [Introduction in English; tales in Irish with facing English trans.].
  • The Three Sorrows of Story-Telling, and Ballads of St. Columkille, by Douglas Hyde (London: T. F. Unwin 1895), viii, 166pp., 8º. [From the Tuatha da Danaan cycle; for separate printings see infra].
  • Fáit-Sgéal agus Óid do’n Oireachtas, Ó láimh an Chraoibhin Aoibhinn, agus Mallughadh an Bhóeir ar Shacsanaibh do rinne an Géagán Glas / An allegory, etc., in [Norma] Borthwick, The Léighean Éirean Ser.] No. 5 (1901), 16pp., 8°.
  • Trí Sgéalta: do fuair an chéad duais / Conchubhar Ó Deasúmhna, do chur síos; An Craoibhín Aoibhinn do chuir i n-eagar [Imtheachta an Oireachtas 1900, Leabhar II] (Baile Átha Cliath: Sealy, Bryers & Walker 1902), v, 68pp.
  • An Tarbh Breac: with notes and complete vocabulary [An sgeuluidhe Gaedhealach / Easy Irish texts ser., No. 2] (Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son [1906]), 36pp. [18.5cm.];
  • Legends of Saints and Sinners ([Every Irishman’s Library] (London: T. Fisher Unwin [1915]); Do. [another edn.] as Legends of Saints & Sinners / collected and translated from the Irish by Douglas Hyde[Every Irishman’s Library] (London: Gresham [1915]), xv, 295., iiip., ill. [4 lvs. of pls.; 20 cm.]; Do. [another edn.] (Dublin: Educational Co. at the Talbot Press [1915]), xiv, 295pp., ill.[ front. by Úna Hyde; 18cm].
Three Sorrows of Story-telling
  • Deirdre: The First of “The Three Sorrows of Story-telling” (Dublin: Talbot Press 1939), 44pp. [copy in Oxford UL inscribed by author].
  • The Children of Lir: The Second of the“The Three Sorrows of Story-telling” (Dublin: Talbot Press 1940), 44pp. [Glossary, p.45] 19cm..
  • The Children of Tuireann: The Third of “The Three Sorrows of Story-telling” [Aided chlainne Tuirenn] ([Dublin]: [1941]), 58pp., 19 cm. [printed green wrappers with a design by Úna Hyde aka Mrs. Sealy].
Fiction (reprints)
  • Sgeuluidhe Fíor na Seachtmhaine, an Craoibhin do sgríobh [Eagar nua go bpictiuírí/new ill. edn.] (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1935).
  • Gerard O’Flaherty, ed., The Stone of Truth and Other Irish Folk Tales; collected and translated from the Irish by Douglas Hyde, (Dublin: IAP [1979]), 126pp. [from Legends of Saints and Sinners, 1915].
  • Breandan Ó Conaire, ed., Language, Lore and Lyrics: Essays and Lectures by Douglas Hyde (Dublin: Irish Academic Press 1986).
In translation
  • Contes gaeliques [de] Douglas Hyde, trans. Georges Dottin [Bibliothèque celtique] (Paris: Éditions Jean Picollec 1980), 270pp., 22cm. [BL].
  • ‘The Necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland,’ in The Revival of Irish Literature: Addresses by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Dr George Sigerson, Dr Douglas Hyde (London: Fisher Unwin 1894), 161, [1], 8, [6]pp.; 17.3cm. [see contents].
  • The Story of Early Gaelic Literature [An Chroaibín Aoibhinn] (T. Fisher Unwin 1894), xxv, 174pp. 16cm. [verso of t.-p.; actually March 1895]; rep. edns. 1900, 1903, 1905, 1910, 1920) [ see contents].
  • A Literary History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (London: T. Fisher Unwin 1899), and Do. [2nd rev. edn.] (London: T. F. Unwin 1901, 1906, [7th imp. 1920]), xviii, 654pp. [see contents], and Do. [rep. edn.], ed. & extended by Brian Ó Cuiv (London: Benn; NY: Barnes & Noble 1967; 1980), xlii, 654pp. [Bibliography, p.xxvii-xxxii].
  • ‘A Famous Mayo Poet’ [Raftery], in The Gael (April 1903), pp.115-16, and Do. [as] Abhráin atá Leagta ar a Reachtúire/Songs ascribed to Raftery’, in Songs of Connacht (Dublin: Gill & Son 1903) [Chap. V], with reps. edns. (NY: Barnes & Noble 1973; Shannon: IUP 1979).
  • Mise agus an Connradh (Baile Atha Cliath 1905); Do. [rep. edn.], as Mise agus an connradh go dtí 1905 (Dublin 1937; var. 1938).
  • Mo Thurus go hAmerice nó imeasg na nGaedheal ins an Oilean Úr [with portraits] (Baile Átha Cliath: 1937).
  • A University Scandal: Reprinted from the “New Ireland Review” &c. (Dublin: Eblana Press 1899), 12pp., 8º.
  • ‘The Return of the Fenians’, and ‘What Ireland is Asking For’ [essays], in Ideals in Ireland, ed. Lady Gregory(1901).
  • Irish Poetry: An Essay in Irish with translation in English and a vocabulary[Filidheacht ghaedhealach; Macternan prize essays, 11] (Dublin: M. H. Gill for Society for the Preservation of the Irish language 1902), q.pp..
  • Final Report of the Commissioners,[with] appendix, minutes of evidence, and documents, 2 vols. (HMSO 1906) [Chair: Edward Fry].
  • Preface to Lorcan Ó Tuathail, An Deoraidhe (1906), 36pp..
  • ‘Memorial Preface’ to George Sigerson, Bards of the Gael and Gall [1897; 2nd rev. edn. 1907] (Dublin Talbot; London: T. Fisher, Unwin 1925), xxviii, 431pp., 8°.
  • ‘Memoir of Edmund Hogan’, in Irish Book Lover (Dec. 1917).
  • ‘Irish Language Movement: Some Reminiscences’, in Manchester Guardian Commercial (10 May 1923); rep. in “An Craoibhín Aoibhinn”: Language, Lore and Lyrics - Essays and Lectures, ed., Breandan Ó Conaire (Dublin: IAP 1986) [q.pp.]
  • ed., Sgéalta Thomáis Uí Chathasaigh: Mayo stories told by Thomas Casey / collected, edited, and translated by Douglas Hyde. [Irish Texts Soc., Vol. 39] (Dublin: ITS 1939), xxiii, 388pp., ill. [1 lf. of pls.; 24cm.]; Do., as Ocht sgéalta ó Choillte Mághach / an Craoibhin Aoibhinn, do scriobh ó bheal Thomais Ui Chathasaigh (Baile Atha Cliath: An Chumainn le Bealoideas Eireann ag Comhlucht Oideachais na hEireann 1936), q.pp.
Scholarly translations
  • Gabhaltais Shearluis Mhóir / The conquests of Charlemagne, edited from the Book of Lismore and three other vellum MSS [Irish Texts Society, Vol. 19] (London: ITS 1917) [Trans. of Pseudo-Turpin’s chronicle from unknown Latin original, ca.1400].
  • The Children of Tuireann (1st ed. 1941).
Modern collections
  • Ann Saddlemyer, ed. and foreword, The Translations and Adaptations of Lady Gregory and Her Collaborations with Douglas Hyde and W. B. Yeats[The Coole Edition of Lady Gregory’s Works, Vol. 8] (Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe 1970) [q.pp.].

Related documents
  • Catalogue of the Library of Dr. Douglas Hyde, decd.: For auction ... on 10th October, 1949, and following days, &c. (Dublin [1949]) [also BL microfilm].
  • [...]

Hyde’s contributions to the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
See Wikipedia [Wikisource] online; accessed 14.01.2012.

Legends of saints & sinners, collected and translated from the Irish by Douglas Hyde.
Published: 1915, T. Fisher Unwin (London)
Series: Every Irishman’s Library
Pagination: xiv, 295 p.:
Subject: Legends — Ireland.
Folklore — Ireland.
Internet Archive Bibliographical Record

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Bibliographical details

Casadh an tSúgáin, first printed in Samhain (Dublin 1901); Casad an tSugáin or The Twisting of the Rope/ An Craobin do sgriob / Translated by Lady Gregory (Baile Átha Cliath An cló-cumann [1902]), bilingual, facing text [22pp.]; Do., another edition [in Irish] [...] dráma aon-ghnímh [An dara heagar] 2nd Edn. (Baile Átha Cliath: Oifig Díolta Foilseacháin Rialtais 1934), 24pp; Do., as Casadh an t-súgáin; or, The twisting of the rope. Translated by Lady Gregory ; Do., trans. by Lady Gregory as “The Twisting of the Rope”, in Poets and Dreamers (Dublin: Hodges & Figgis 1903]; Do, rep. with foreword by T. R. Henn [Coole Edn.], Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1974), 287pp.,, ill. [4pp. of pls.; 2 lvs. of pls.; ports.].

Casadh na tSugain (Dublin 1902) - bilingual edition with trans. by Lady Gregory on facing pages
Casadh na tSugain 1902

[ Click image to enlarge; available at Internet Archive - online; accessed 06.10.2017.]

Amhráin Chúige Chonnacht I-III, Ó Cearbhalláin, Amhráin Molta na mBan, Amhráin Óil, [le] Dubhghlas de hÍde, in eagar ag Breandán Ó Conaire / The Songs of Connacht I-III, Songs of O’Carolan, Songs Praising Women, Drinking Songs; Douglas Hyde, edited, with an introduction by Breandan Ó Conaire (Dublin: Irish Academic Press 1985) [intro. copyright 1899; other material, IAP, 1985].

CONTENTS: Introduction; Chap. 1: Beití Ní Bhriain; Ceann Dubh Dílis; Eoghan Rua Ó Néill; maidín Bhog aoibhnn; Dollaí Ní Dhonncha; Caoineadh ar Mhac Donncha; An tSí Mhór agus an tSí Bheag; Ullachán Dubh Ó; Comhchruinniú na Raighilleach [48]. Chap. 2: Miedhbh Ní Mhullóidh; An Leannán; Máire Ní Channa; Fáilte Dubh san Dún so; Moll Dubh an Ghleanna; Pol Dubh an Ghleanna; Móirín Ní Dhubhda; Cití Nic Aodha; Bríd Crús; Fanní Ní Cheallaigh; Caoineadh ar Chitrí Ní hEaghra [86]. Chap. III: Réséipt Úi Cheabhalláin; Blaicidh; Rainn an Tobaic; Paidí mo Ghrá; an Bonnán Buí; Chui mé mo Gharraí; an Tráth Chuirim-se Garraí; Bean an Leanna; Sláinte an Fuisce; Tá Bás ar no Chroí le Tart; Iníon Chaiptín Drúdaigh; An Bhean an Tí; Is Trua gan Mé is no Chéad-searc; Coinleach Glas an Fhómhair; Faoistin an Chaisidigh; Lá dar Éirigh Mé; Bríd Ní Bhirn; Cathal Mac Aodha; Comhrá leis an Uisce Beatha; Preab san Ól; Fuisce Mháistir Sloper; Máire Bheag Ní Choinnnealáin [sic]; Fágfaimid súd mar atá sé; Cailín Deas Crúite na mBó; Pléaráca na Ruarcach; Aguisín [Appendix] [153]. [Note: Ó Conaire explains in the preface that the chapters on Raftery (fifth) and the religious songs (sixth) were eventually published in book form in 1903 and 1906 respectively, as well as an addition to the nine-chapter opus An Leath-Rann in 1922; enlarged Irish language edns. of Abhráin Ghrádha (fourth) and Abhráin atá leagtha ar an Reachtúire were issued in 1931 and 1933.

Abhráin Gradh Chuige Connacht / Love Songs of Connacht, being the fourth chapter of THE SONGS OF CONNACHT, [by] Douglas Hyde, LLD, MRIA, An Chraoibhin Aoibhinn, intro. by Micheal Ó hAodha (Shannon: IUP 1969); photo-lithic facs. of 1st edn., London & Dublin 1893].

CONTENTS: Introduction (v-x); Fuagradh; Preface [letter of dedication to Dr. Sigerson; song-titles given in Irish first.] If I Were Going West; The Brow of Nefin; The Moorneen, or Darling, of the Fair Hair; Little Mary of the Fair Hair; The Moorneen of the Fair Hair (Munster Version); The Brow of the Red Mountain; The Weariness and Grief; Long am I Going (incl. lines: ‘like a discarded bush in the mouth of a gap / I was left on Monday morning / Without one person alive near me, / But my white llove - and he gone far from me / There is no brightness nor fineness, / Nor loveliness of all that were in the kingdom / That is not in my white love; / And sure that left a sigh in my breast.’); ‘My Grief on the Sea (‘On board a ship for America bound’); The Drinaun Dunn (Brown Blackthorn); I wish I Were in England; The Tailoreen of the Cloth; There is a Girl in this Town; Ringleted Youth of My Love; The Young Maiden; Oona Waun (Fair Una) [most celebrated song by Tumaus Loidher, or Coisdealbhach, concerning Una MacDermott of Sligo, time of Cromwell; extension narrative in the footnote]; Darling Black Head [Ceann Dhu Dheelish]; Paustyeen Finn, or the Fair-haired Childeen (incl. the lines, ‘The love of my soul is the Pausteen finn, / Her heart and her soul to be squeezed to me, / Two breasts, bright like the blossom of the bushes, / And her neck like the swan on a March day ... There is no man who would touch my one little sister / That I would not make powder of his bones’); Ugh, O Una; The Cooleen, or Coolun; The Coolun (another version); The white Coverlet; Breed, My Treasure; The Breedyman; O Maurya, thou art my Love; The Pretty Pearl of White Mountain; Teig and Mary; The Red-haried Man’s Wife; the same (another version); You Breed of the Tresses; Great or Small; The Little Girl of the glen; Nelly of the Top-Knots; Dark Moll of the Valley; Dark Poll of the Valley; Love on my Heart you are; The Mannerly Handsome One; Snowy Una; Courteous Breed; Och, oh, Mary; Happy it is for Thee; Love Refusing him; I shall not die for Thee (‘For thee I shall not die, / Woman high of fame and name; / Foolish men thou mayest slay / I and they are not the same ...’.); The Little Child over There; The Roman Earl.

Abhráin grádh chúige Connacht, or Love songs of Connacht (being the fourth chapter of the “Songs of Connacht”) [3rd edn.] by Douglas Hyde (London: T. Fisher Unwin 1893), viii, 158pp. Irish and English on facing pages. ‘The little work ... of which this is the fourth chapter - the preceding three having been printed in the now extinct Nation -was originally all written in Irish.’ The songs were either taken down ‘from the lips of the Irish speaking peasantry ... or extracted from mss. ... made by different scribes this century.’ (p.v.) [Internet Archive > Open Library - online; accessed 06.10.2017.]

Abhráin grádh chúige Connacht. Love songs of Connacht being the fourth chapter of the “Songs of Connacht”, by Douglas Hyde [Facs. of 1893 London edn. published by T. F. Unwin Edn. (Shannon: Irish University Press 1969), x, viii, 158pp. [Cat.: Dewey Decimal Class 891.6/2/11; Library of Congress PB1429.H9 1893a. [No readable version available at 06.10.2017.]


Douglas Hyde, Abhráin Grádh Chuige Connacht / Love Songs of Connacht[1893; 5th edn.] (Dublin 1909)
“Mala Néifin / The Brown of Nefin”
Love Songs
[ See more pages - as attached. ]

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The Necessity for De-Anglicising Ireland’, first publ. in The Revival of Irish Literature: Addresses by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, Dr George Sigerson, Dr Douglas Hyde (London: Fisher Unwin 1894), and Do. [facs. rep.] (NY: Lemma 1973); also rep. in Edmund Curtis & R. B. McDowell, eds., Irish Historical Documents, 1172-1922 (London: Methuen 1943), 331pp., and in Mark Storey, ed., Poetry and Ireland Since 1800: A Source Book (London: Routledge 1988), pp.78-84 [see extract]; also in in Brendan Ó Conaire, Language, Lore and Lyrics (Blackrock: IAP 1986), 153-70.

Literary History of Ireland from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, by Douglas Hyde LLD, MRIA [An Croaibhín Aoibhinn] (2nd imp., London T. Fisher Unwin 1901), 654pp., index. CONTENTS, Chapters, ‘Who Were the Celts?’; ‘Earliest Allusions to Ireland from Foreign Sources’; ‘Early History Drawn from Native Sources’; ‘How Far Can Native Sources be Relied On’; ‘The Pre-Milesian Fable and Early Pantheon’; ‘Evidence of Topography and Genealogy’; ‘Documentary Evidence’; ‘Confusion between Gods and Men’; ‘Druidism’; ‘The Irish Elysium and Belief In Rebirth’; ‘Early Use of Letters, Ogam and Roman’; ‘Early Irish Civilisation’; ‘St. Patrick and The Early Missionaries’; ‘St Brigit; St Columcille’; ‘The First Schools of Christian Ireland’; ‘Their Fame and Teaching’; ‘Conflict with The Civil Power’; ‘The Bardic Schools’; ‘The Suggestively Pagan Element in Irish Literature’; ‘The Oldest Books and Poems’; ‘Early Saga and Romance’; ‘The Mythological Cycle’; ‘The Heroic or Red Branch Cycle – Cuchulain’; ‘Deirdre’; ‘The Tain Bo Chuailgne’; ‘The Death of Cuchulain’; ‘Other Sagas of The Red Branch’; ‘The Fenian Cycle’; ‘Miscellaneous Romance’; ‘Pre-Danish Poets’; ‘The Danish Period’; ‘From Clontarf to The Norman Conquest’; ‘Sudden Arrest of Irish Development’; ‘Four Centuries of Deca’; ‘Development of Irish Poetry’; ‘The Ossianic Poems’; ‘The Last of The Classical Poets’; ‘Rise of A New School’; ‘Prose Writers of The Seventeenth Century’; ‘The Irish Annals’; ‘The Brehon Laws’; ‘The Eighteenth Century’; ‘The History of Irish as a Spoken Language’. INDEX. DEDICATION, ‘To the members of the Gaelic League, the only body in Ireland which appears to realise the fact that Ireland has a past, has a history, has a literature, and the only body in Ireland which seeks to render the present, a rational continuation of the past, I DEDICATE this attempt at a review of that literature which despite its present neglected position they feel and know to be a true possession of national importance.’

The Story of Early Gaelic Literature [An Chraoibnín Aoibhinn] (T. Fisher Unwin 1894, 1900, 1903, 1905, 1910, 1920), [v-xxv, 174pp. 14 chps., from ‘Early Use of Letters among the Irish’ to ‘The Danish Period’, and incl. ‘Mythological Cycle, VI;; ‘Fenian Cycle, VIII; ‘Who Were the Fenians?’, IX; ‘The Irish Annals’, XII; ‘Ossianic Poems’, XI; ‘Early Christian Writers’, XIII, etc.

The Book of the O’Conor Don’, ed. by Douglas Hyde with Osborn Bergin, in Eriu, Vol. VIII (Dublin: Hodges Figgis 1916), pp.78-99 [Hyde wrote the “Notice”; Bergin produced the Index of first lines (pp.81-96) and Index of Authors (pp.97-99)].

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  • D. Ó Cobhthaigh, Douglas Hyde: A Bibliography (1917).
  • Dominic Daly, The Young Douglas Hyde: The Dawn of the Irish Revolution and Renaissance, 1874-1893 (Shannon: IUP 1974) [see details].
  • Gareth W. Dunleavy, Douglas Hyde (Lewisburg: Bucknell UP 1974).
  • Robert Hogan, ed., Journal of Irish Literature, ‘Hyde Special Issue’, XVIII, 1 (January 1989).
  • Risteard Ó Glaisne, Dúghlas de hÍde 1860-1949: Náisiúnach Neamhspleách 1910-1949 [Vol. II of Connradh na Gaeilge Lives] (Dublin: Connradh na Gaeilge 1990), 412pp..
  • Janet Egleson Dunleavy & Gareth W. Dunleavy, Douglas Hyde: a Maker of Modern Ireland (California UP 1991), 472pp., 28 ills. [available at Univ. of California E-Press [see details];
  • Michael Cronin, Translating Ireland: Translations, Languages, Cultures (Cork UP 1996), pp.134-38.
Articles& chapters
  • Michael J. Lennon, ‘Douglas Hyde’, in The Bell, 16, 6 (1951), pp.46-54.
  • Michael J. Lennon, ‘Douglas Hyde’, in The Bell, 17 (April 1956), pp.45-46.
  • Myles Dillon, ‘Douglas Hyde’, in the Shaping of Modern Ireland, ed. Conor Cruise O’Brien (London 1960), [q.pp.].
  • Lester Conner, ‘The Importance of Douglas Hyde to the Irish Literary Renaissance’, in Modern Irish Literature, ed. R. J. Porter & J. D. Brophy (NY: Iona College 1972), Vol. I., pp.95-114.
  • Cathal G. Ó Hainle, ‘Towards the Revival, Some Translations of Irish Poetry 1789-1897’, in Literature and the Changing Ireland, ed. Peter Connolly (London 1982), pp.37-58.
  • D. George Boyce, ‘The Battle of Three Civilisations’ [Chap. 8], Nationalism in Ireland (London: Routledge 1982; rep. 1991), pp.237ff..
  • Bruce Stewart, ‘The Necessity for the De-Hydification of the Irish Constitution’, in Fortnight Supplement [Irish Language Special Issue] No. 316 (March 1993), pp.20-24 [extended version as ‘On the Necessity of De-Hydifying Irish Cultural Criticism’, in New Hibernia Review/Iris Éireannach Nua, 4, 1, (Spring 2000), pp.23-44. ]
  • Seán Ó Lúing, Celtic Studies in Europe and Other Essays (Dublin: Geography Publications 2000), ‘Douglas Hyde and the Gaelic League’, pp.77-94.

See also Pádraig Ó Maidín, ‘Pages from an Irishman’s Diary: This Period Then’, in Éire-Ireland, 6, 4 (Winter 1971), pp.23-28, p.23-24; contains discussion of The Book of Lismore; Declan Kiberd, ‘Love Songs of Connacht’, in Irish Classics (London: Granta 2000), pp.302-24.

Bibliographical details
Dominic Daly [O.S.A.], The Young Douglas Hyde (IUP 1974) - CONTENTS: Chap. I - Early Days, Discovering an Unwritten Tradition; Chap. II, The Written Tradition; Chap. III, Trinity College, Dublin; the Dublin University Review and the Contemporary Club; Chap. IV - Among the Literary Nationalists; Chap. V - Hyde the Writer; VI - 1890-1893, National Literary Society and the Gaelic League. Daly draws heavily upon a set of diaries, 1874-1912, in the keeping of one Capt. MacGlinchey. [See extensive excerpts under Commentary, infra.]

Janet Egleson Dunleavy & Gareth W. Dunleavy, Douglas Hyde: A Maker of Modern Ireland (California UP 1991), 472pp., 28 ills. CONTENTS: 1. Douglas Hyde and the Generational Imperative; 2. A Smiling Public Man; 3. The Budding Branch; 4. The Voices of the Fathers; 5. First Flowering; 6. Between Connacht and Dublin; 7. To Canada; 8. A Different America—A Different Ireland; 9. A Bridle for Proteus; 10. The Happiest of Men; 11. Plays and Players; 12. The Larger Stage; 13. With the Irish in America; 14. Triumphs and Troubles; 15. The Rocky Road to Revolution; 16. The Terrible Beauty; 17. In and Out of Public Life; 18. The Road to Áras an Uachtaráin; 19. The Presidency; 20. Death and Dispersal;; Sources Consulted; Index; [available at Univ. of California E-Press - online; accessed 12.01.2012; another version - full-text version - online; accessed 06.10.2017.]

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[ See separate file, infra. ]

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[ See separate file, infra. ]

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Dictionary of National Biography, calls Hyde a Gaelic revivalist, poet, and first president of Eire, 1938; ed. TCD; LL.D. 1888; b. Roscommon; Pres. Gaelic League [1893-1915]. See also Arthur Quiller Couch, ed., Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250-1918 (new ed. 1929), p.881.

Justin McCarthy, gen. ed., Irish Literature (Washington: University of America 1904), for which Hyde served as Gaelic editor, gives about fifteen extracts from song, history, and drama; note also citation of Three Irish Essays (London: Fisher Unwin [q.d.]), which contains discussion of the abandoning of Irish saints’ names in Ireland.

Stephen Brown, Ireland in Fiction (Dublin: Maunsel 1919), lists The Adventures of the Lad of Ferule (n.d.); The Adventures of the Children of the King of Norway (1899); Legends of Saints and Sinners ([Every Irishman’s Library] 1915). D. E. S. Maxwell (Modern Irish Drama, 1984) lists Casadh an tSugáin, or The Twisting of the Rope, trans. by Lady Gregory [Irish and English] (Cló-Chumann, Dublin 1905); Love songs of Connacht (Gill, 1893).

Desmond Clarke, Ireland in Fiction: A Guide to Irish Novels, Tales, Romances and Folklore [Pt. 2] (Cork: Royal Carbery 1985), gives summaries of Four Irish Stories (Dublin: Gill n.d.), 53pp., and Five Irish Stories Translated (Dublin: Gill n.d.), 55[pp.], respectively from the second [XI, XII, XIV, and XIX] and first [1-5] parts of An Sgealuidhe Gaodhlac.

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Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 2, pp.559-60, BIOG, WORKS & COMM [as supra], accepted presidency of newly formed Irish Literary Society in 1892, and presidency of Gaelic League, 1893, the year of his marriage; when its constitution was changed [in 1915] to admit a separatist political aim, Hyde resigned. President of Eire, 1938-1944. FDA2 also contains references and remarks, pious hope of hibernicising English through translation repudiated by, 5; trans. of ‘Bean an Fhir Ruaidh’, 84; [bibl. of ‘Popular Song’, 98; [105]; Frank Hugh O’Donnell, History of the I.P.P. (1910), ‘it was into this unpromising condition of affairs that Dr Douglas Hyde, some dozen years ago, brought his enthusiastic advocacy and his untiring resolution [but see seq. in see O’Donnell, q.v.], 336-37; revival a necessity if Irish nationhood to be more than political expediency [ed. Terence Brown], 516; enamoured of things Celtic [ibid.] 517; genuinely patriotic activity ... Love Songs of Connacht [as] landmark of Irish cultural history, 518; Pearse, in An Claimheamh Soluis, Nov. 1913, ‘Whenever Dr Hyde, at a meeting at which I have had a chance of speaking after him, has produced his dove of peace, I have always been careful to produce my sword; and to tantalise him by saying that the Gaelic League has brought into Ireland “Not Peace, but a Sword”. This does not show any fundamental difference of outlook betweeen my leader and me; for while he is thinking of peace between brother Irishmen, I am thinking of the sword-point between banded Irishmen and the foreign force that occupies Ireland, and his peace is necessary to my war’, 557; [Twisting of the Rope, 562]; Lady Gregory’s note to The Workhouse Ward, ‘I wrote a scenario of the play, Dr Douglas Hyde getting in plot what he gave back in dialogue’, 624; Raftery re-established by Hyde and Lady Gregory, 720; ... in his songs of Connacht (1903), 723; used system of capitalization in translation to underline the use of assonance in Raftery, 724; does not follow the now accepted stanza-order in ‘Mary Hynes’ 726; debt of several literary figures of the Irish Revival to Hyde’s translations [ed., Seamus Deane], 728; [biog. Raftery, 779], 787; his “Necessity ... &c” was the inaugural lecture at the Irish Literary Society, 830; in DP Moran’s 1901 anti-TCD homily, ‘the exception that proves the rule’, 971n.; but for Rolleston, a ‘dubious exception’, 973; still ‘the solitary exception’ in Moran’s retort, 974; included under term Anglo-Irish literature by Thomas MacDonagh (1916), 990; ‘his translation Ringeleted Youth of My Love has a value that can rarely be given to such metaphors in English poetry’ [ibid.], 991; Frederick Ryan, ‘When I see the young scholars of the League substituting the Love Songs of Connacht for The Last Conquest of Ireland (Perhaps) ... I ask myself, is this a step foward or backward, 999n; [?1218].

Seamus Deane, gen. ed., The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing (Derry: Field Day 1991), Vol. 3, refernces & remarks: Sean O’Faoláin, in The Bell (June 1943), ‘then I consider why we should not find a more fitting setting for our own old Gaelic Leaguer President than the aspidistras and tawdry bamboos of the former Viceregal Lodge. / That is what our middle-classes have done for us’ 107; Hyde’s teaching inspired Austin Clarke, ‘the hands of our lost despised centuries were laid upon me’ [ed. Brown], 129; Clarke taught Irish by Hyde at UCD, 130; FR Higgins much influence by Hyde’s Connaught translations, acc. Austin Clarke, 493, 495; influenced George Bermingham’s cultural attitudes, 557; Hyde’s Literary Society address of 1892 (Necessity &c) overshadows Sigerson’s, 564; Hyde’s translations helped to consign Irish to the bookshelf as a literary curiosity (acc. Deane, Celtic Revivals 1985), 612; evoked in Sean Golden’s Crane Bag polemic, 1979, 672; Horace Plunket praises and encourages Hyde’s ‘strictly non-political and non-sectarian’ Gaelic League (in Ireland in the New Century, 1913), 691; Plunkett notes that the president of the Gaelic League is a Protestant, 694n; Frederick Ryan argues against Hyde that there is no point looking for non-political grounds for national regeneration (1906), 703; Haughey, ‘two out of six people who have held the highest office in this land have been embers of the Protestant faith’ (1986), 774n; Hye, ‘the revival and cultivation of the modern language’ [quoted ed. Eoghan Ó hAnluain], 814; rediscovered Raftery, 1323n. And NOTE, It is said in connection with Hyde that his ‘Necessity &c.’ was the inaugural lecture of the Irish Literary Society; but in it he himself refers to Dr Sigerson [in a prefatory letter] as having ‘already shown in his opening lecture the debt of gratitude which in many respects Europe owed to ancient Ireland’. [FDA2 529.]

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British Library (to 1956), Diarmaid Coffey, Douglas Hyde, &c., Irishmen of Today (1917); Coffey, Douglas Hyde, President of Ireland (Dublin: Talbot 1938), 153pp., with ports.; Every Irishman’s Library, gen. eds., A. P. Graves ... Douglas Hyde [et al.] (1914 &c.); Graves, Irish Poems of Alfred Perceval Graves, pref. Douglas Hyde (1908); Spreading of the News by Lady Gregory [&] The Poorhouse, by Douglas Hyde (1906); ‘Giola na Finuga or The Lad of the Ferule’; ‘Eactra Cloinne Rig na h-Ioruaidhe, or the Adventures of the Children of the King of Norway’, ed. with trans., notes and glossary by D. Hyde [Irish Texts Soc.] (1899); Justin MacCarthy, ed., Irish Literature (1904), assoc. eds., M. F. Egan, D. Hyde et al.; Tomás Ó Cathasaigh, Ocht Sgealta o Coillte Mághach, An Craoibhín Aoibhinn do scríob o béal T. Úi Cathasaig, coll. ed., and trans. with notes by D. Hyde (1939).

AMONG 43 OTHER ITEMS, many in Irish, also including one French and one Welsh translation, and the bibl. of Sir John Gilbert’s library [Pearse St.]; notably A University Scandal, rep. from New Ireland Review (Dublin: Eblana Press 1899), 12pp.; ‘The Necessity, &c.’ [See C. G. Duffy], in Revival of Irish Literature (1894); Irish Poetry, An Essay in Irish with trans. in English and a vocabulary by Dr D. Hyde (Dublin: Soc. for Preservation of the Irish Language 1902), 152pp.; ‘What Ireland is Asking For’ [trans. from Irish], and ‘The Return of the Fenians’, both in Lady Gregory, Ideals in Ireland (1901); Legends of Saints and Sinners, coll. and trans. from Irish by D. Hyde (Irishman’s Library [1916]), xiv+295pp. [recte 1915]; A Literary History of Ireland from the earliest times to the present day [Library of Literary History] (T Fisher Unwin 1899), xviii+64pp., reiss. [4th impress.] Lon. 1906]; Religious Songs of Connacht, a collection of poems, stories, prayers, ranns, charms, &c.... now for the first time collected, edited, and translated by Douglas Hyde [Irish and English], 2 vols. (London: T Fisher Unwin/Dublin: M. H. Gill 1906; The Love Songs of Connacht, being the fourth chp. of The Songs of Connacht now for the first time collected, edited and translated [Irish & English] (London: Unwin/Dub [printed] 1893), viii+158pp; Contes irlandais modernes, trans. G Dottin [Irish & French 1893-1902 [Annales de Bretagne, tomes 8-17] (Univ. of Rennes 1886 &c.); Mise agus an Connradh go dtí 1905 (Oif. Díolta Foillseacháin [1934]); Mo Turas go hAmerice, no, Imeart na nGaedhael ins an Oileán Ús (Oif. DF 1937), 188pp., [with plates].

COPAC lists Raftery’s Poems: Abhrain agus danta an Reachtabhraigh ar na gcruinniughadh agus ar na bhfoillsiughadh den chead uair, Abhrain ata leagtha ar an Reachtuire: Songs ascribed to Raftery. Being the fifth chapter of the Songs of Connacht, 1903, 1933, 1969, 1973. Religious Songs of Connacht: Abhrain diadha chuige Connacht, or The religious songs of Connacht. (1893); Abhrain diadha chuige Connacht, or, The Religious songs of Connacht: a collection of poems, stories, prayers, satires, ranns, charms, etc.: being chapter VI [and VII] of the Songs of Connacht / now for the first time collected, edited, and translated by Douglas Hyde (An craoibhin aoibhinn). 1900, 1905; 1906, 1972. Love Songs of Connacht: Abhrain gradh chuige Connacht, or, Love songs of Connacht: (being the fourth chapter of the “Songs of Connacht”) / now for the first time collected, edited, and translated by Douglas Hyde (An Chraoibhin Aoibhinn). 1893, 1895, 1909; Amhrain chuige Chonnacht. An leath-rann, 1922; Amrain cuige Connact. An leat-rann, 1922; Abhrain ghradha Chuige Chonnacht, ar n-a gcruinniughadh agus ar n-a bhfoillsiughadh de’n chead uair, 1931, 1950; Abhrain gradh chuige Connacht/Love songs of Connacht; being the fourth chapter of the Songs of Connacht, 1969; Amhrain chuige Chonnacht I-III: o Cearbhallain, amhrain molta na mban, amrhain oil / [collected by] Dubhghlas de h’Ide; in eagar ag Breandan O Conaire: The songs of Connacht I-III: songs of O’Carolan, songs praising women, drinking songs ; [collected by] Douglas Hyde ; edited, with an introduction, by Breandan O Conaire. 1985. The adventures of Leithin, 1917. Aille an domain / Uan Ulad so sgriob ; roim-rad leis an gCraoibin [i.e. D. Hyde]. 1928. Aille an domhain / O’Farrelly, Agnes. 1927; Airgead saor, [by An craoibhin aoibhinn, pseud.]. 1905. Amrain Cuilm de Bailis / Bhailis, Colm de, 1796-1906. 1904. Bards of the Gael and Gall: examples of the poetic literature of Erinn, done into English after the metres and modes of the Gael / Sigerson, George, 1836-1925. 1907. Beside the fire: a collection of Irish-Gaelic folk stories, 1890, 1910; 1973, 1978. Casad[h] an tsugain: or, the twisting of the rope An Craobhin do soriobh;, 1905; Casad[h] an tsugain drama aon-gnim: an cead cluice Gaedilge do leirigead i n-amarclainn, 1934. Sir John Gilbert: Catalogue of the books & manuscripts comprising the library of the late Sir John T. Gilbert / Dublin Public Libraries. 1918; Catalogue of the... manuscripts comprising the library of the late Sir John T. Gilbert, 1918. Ceithre sgeulta eile (11,12,14,19) Tarraingte as an ’Sgeuluidhe Gaedhealach’, 1902; Ceithre sgeulta [2,4,5,6] tarraingte as an ‘Sgeuluidhe Gaedhealach’, 1902. THE THREE SORROWS of STORYTELLING: The three sorrows of story-telling: and Ballads of St. Columkille, 1895; The children of Lir: the second of the “Three sorrows, or pities, of story-telling”, 1940;. The children of Tuireann: the third of the “Three sorrows, or pities, of story-telling”, 1941; Deird[r]e: The first of the “Three sorrows, or pities, of story telling.” / Longes Mac N Usnig. 1939. Contes irlandais/An sgealuidhe Gaedhealach. 1980; Contes Irlandais, 1893. Danta eagramhla agus Bearla curtha ortha/Miscellaneous poems 1943; Danta eagramhla agus Bearla curtha ortha/Miscellaneous poems . 1943. Election handbill, with photograph and brief biography.] , President of Ireland. 1937. Drama breithe Chriosta. 1963. Oireachtas: Duais-aisti agus danta on] dara Oireachtas 1898. The second Oireachtas held in the Rotunda, Dublin, on Tuesday, 24th May, 1898 / Oireachtas na Gaeilge, 1898. 1898. Fer-fi: An Craoibhin, 1916. Five Irish songs: for mixed chorus a cappella / Maw, Nicholas, 1935-. 1973. Five short stories, President of Ireland [sic]. 1896. Gabhaltais Shearlius Mhoir: The conquests of Charlemagne [Holy Roman Emperor, 742?-814] edited from the Book of Lismore and three other vellum MSS. 1917. Eachtra cloinne Righna h-Ioruaidhe /or, Adventures of the children of the king of Norway, ed., with translation, notes, and glossary. 1899. Giolla an fhiugha, or, The lad of the ferule: [and] Eachtra cloinne righ na hIoruaidhe, or, Adventures of the children of the King of Norway / edited with translation, notes, and glossary. 1899. Ideals in Ireland, contrib. to Lady Lady coll. 1978. Imtheachta an Oireachtais, 1899. The proceedings of the third Oireachtas held in Dublin on Wednesday, 7th June, 1899, including the Cardinal’s speech [i.e. Cardinal Logue], Oireachtas Ode [by Douglas Hyde], Oireachtas address [by Rev. Walter Conway], prize essays, stories and poems / Oireachtas na Gaeilge, 1899. 1900. The Book of The O’Conor Don: Index of first lines [in], 1985. Irish literature (1904): Section One; Irish authors and their writings in ten volumes; [Charles Welsh, mag. ed.], Vol. 4, Mary Furlong, Douglas Hyde, [and others]. 1904. Irish poetry: an essay in Irish with translation in English and a vocabulary,. 1902. Language, lore and lyrics: essays and lectures, 1986. Leabhar sgeulaigheachta cruinnighthe agus curtha le cheile le Dubhghlas de h-ide, 1889. Legends of saints and sinners / collected and translated from the Irish by Douglas Hyde. 1920; Legends of saints & sinners / collected and translated from the Irish by Douglas Hyde ; with illustrations by Noel L. Nisbet. 1916; Legends of saints & sinners, 1915. Legends of saints & sinners, 1900. Lia fail[?]. A literary history of Ireland from earliest times to the present day, 1899, 1901, 1920, 1967, 1980. The love songs of Connacht: Abhrain gradh chuige Connacht ; being the fourth chapter of ’The songs of Connacht’ [collected, edited and translated 1904, 1906, 1909, 1969, 1971. Criticism: Mairtin O Cadhain: [a critical article on Douglas Hyde (/Sealy 1954). Maistin an Bhearla: drama;, 1914; Maistin an Bheurla: drama ein-ghnimh, 1934. Mise agus an Connrad (go dei 1905), 1937, 1938. Mo turus go hAmerice: no, imeasg na nGaedeal ins an oilean ur, 1937. My grief on the sea: song with piano / Trimble, Joan. 1938. Naoi ndanta Ieis an Reachtabhrach: an Cra[o]oibhin Aoibhinn do chruinnigh. / Raftery, Anthony, 1764?-1835. 1907, 1912, 1912. An naomh ar iarriadh: [drama], 1934. The necessity for de-anglicising Ireland, 1994. The New Irish library / edited by Charles Gavan Duffy, Douglas Hyde, T.W.H. Rolleston and R. Barry O’Brien. O King of the Friday: SATB (unacc.) / Havelock Nelson, 1917- . 1975. Ocht sgealta o Choillte Maghach / an Craoibhin Aoibhinn [pseud.]; do scriobh o bheal Thomais Ui Chathasaigh. 1936. Pleusgadh na bulgoide: (drama suilt i naon ghniomh), 1934. Poems from the Irish, 1963. Popular tales of the west highlands orally collected.: With a translation, / John Francis Campbell [1822-1885]. 1862. An posadh: drama ein-ghnimh. 1905. Prince Charlie and Flora, 1942 [sic]. The religious songs of Connacht / Abhrain diadha chuige Connacht: being the sixth and seventh chapters of the Songs of Connacht, 1972; The religious songs of Connacht: A collection of poems, stories, prayers, satires, ranns, charms, etc, 1906. The revival of Irish literature. Addresses by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy ... Dr. George Sigerson, and Dr. Douglas Hyde. 1894. Righ Seumus: [drama], 1934. Selected plays of Douglas Hyde /’An Craoibhin Aoibhinn’, with translations by Lady Gregory ; chosen and with an introduction by Gareth W. Dunleavy and Janet Egleson Dunleavy 1991. Sgealta Tomais ui Chathasaigh/Mayo stories told by Thomas Casey [ed. and tr]. 1939. Sgealuidhe fior na seachtmhaine: seacht sgealta o bheal na ndaoine, 1911, 1935. An sgealuidhe Gaedhealach (sgealta as Connacta), 1895, 1901, 1933. Songs ascribed to Raftery/abhrain ata leagtha ar an Reachtuire: being the fifth chapter of The Songs of Connacht. 1973. Songs of Connacht: the half-rann, 1900. Songs of St. Columcille, 1942. The stone of truth, and other Irish folk tales / collected and translated from the Irish. 1979. The story of early Gaelic literature, 1894, 1895, 1920. Taidhbhse an chrainn: with complete vocabulary; [sceal as ’An sgeuluidhe Gaodhalach’, in eagar ag Dubhglas de hIde], 1906, 1929. Three Irish plays / with an introduction by Harrison Hale Schaff. 1936. The tinker and the fairy: op.53 / Michele Esposito. 1910. . Ubhla den chraoibh: danta agus abhrain, 1900; Ulla den chraobh: agus danta breise, 1985. Sgealta Tomais ui Chathasaigh/Mayo stories told by Thomas Casey [ed. and tr]. 1939. Songs of St. Columcille, 1942. An tarbh breac: with notes and complete vocabulary.. 1906. Ulla den chraobh: agus danta breise, 1985; Ubhla den chraoibh: danta agus abhrain, 1900. WITH LADY GREGORY: The collected plays / Gregory, Lady, 1852-1932. 1971; The collected plays / Gregory, Lady, 1852-1932. 1970; The collected plays of Lady Gregory / Gregory, Lady, 1852-1932. 1970; [Collected works] / Gregory, Isabella Augusta, Lady, 1852-1932. 1974. Poets and dreamers: studies and translations from the Irish / with Lady Gregory. 1903; 1967, 1974. Spreading the news; The rising of the moon; The poorhouse [with] Gregory, Lady. 1906. The translations and adaptations of Lady Gregory and her collaborations with Douglas Hyde and W.B. Yeats: being the fourth volume of the collected plays of Lady Gregory. 1970, 1979.

Corrig note: COPAC also lists under Hyde A history of Ireland, translated from the German of Julius Pokorny ... 1933 but this is erroneous since the work in question was introduced by J. M. Hone, and is a translation of the German-language text Irland (1916) prefaced by Pokorny himself.

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University of Ulster Library holds 52 titles [and various author listings] incl. Hyde, Communism Today (Gill & Macmillan 1972), 2+173pp., pbk., HX40.H93; Amhra Gradha Chuige Connacht, 1900 (Gill); 1910 (Martin Lester); 1931; 1969 (IAP intro. M Ó hAoda; 1987; IAP facs. 1893); An Sgeuluidhe Gaedhealach (Bealoideasa 1931); Beside the Fire (1978 IAP facs. 1st ed. 1910 [err.]); 1890 ([David] Nutt); Gabhaltais Shearlius Mhoir [Conquests of Charlemagne], ed. D Hyde, Irish Texts Soc., Vol. 9 (ITS 1917), 128pp.; Irish Poetry, essay in Irish with trans. in English and vocabulary (Soc. for Preservation of Irish Lang., 1902), 152pp [MORRIS]; The Last Three Centuries of Gaelic Literature (Irish Lit. Soc. 1895), 39pp.; idem (Talbot 192-); Maistin an Bheurla (tSolathair 1951); Mise agus an Connradh go dti 1905 (1937). MORRIS COLLECTION holds Amhrain Gradha Chuige Connacht (various eds.); Ceithre Sgeulta ... (1902, 1904); Irish Poetry, an Essay in Irish with translation in English and a vocabulary (1902); Last Three Centuries of Gaelic Literature (1895) 39pp; Leabhar Sgeul-aighteachta (1889); Legends of Saints and Sinners (192?); A Literary History of Ireland ... (1901); Mise Agus an Connradh go dti 1905 (1937); Pleusgadh na Bulgoide (c.1900); An Sgeuluidhe Gaedlealach (1933); Literary History &, 1902 edn.

Belfast Public Library holds 9 titles incl. Beside the Fire (1890, 1939); The Last Three Centuries of Gaelic Lit. (1894); Leabhar Sgeulaigheachta (1889); Legends of Saints and Sinners ((n.d.); The Story of Gaelic Lit. (1895, 1920); The Three Sorrows of Story-Telling (1895); also D. Ó Cobhthaigh, Douglas Hyde, a bibliography (1917). 1950 Cat. lists The Children of Tuireann (1st ed. 1941) [signed copy, Hyland 214]

De Burca Catalogue, No. 44 (1997) lists Legends of Saints & Sinners. Collected and translated from the Irish by Douglas Hyde. With illustrations by Noel L. Nisbet. Dublin, Phoenix, n.d. Pages xv, 295, iii. Fine. signed copy of Seamus O Duilearga [£25]; The Three Sorrows of Story-telling and Ballads of St. Columkille. London, Unwin, 1895. Pages, viii, 166, 2. Ex. lib. V.good. Scarce. [£75].

Cathach Books Catalogue (1996/97) lists Legends of Saints & Sinners (London: Gresham [q.d.]), 193pp.; The Religious Songs of Connaught [copied sic], A Collection of Poems, Stories, Prayers, Satires, Ranns, Charms, &c. 2 vols. (Dublin: Gill n.d.), vol. 1: 404pp., vol. 2: 420pp., front. port.; The Revival of the Irish Language (no details), front. port, 20pp.

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The Twisting of the Rope (1902): A one-act play in which house-party is in progress in Munster around 1800 where the travelling poet Tomás Ó hAnnracháin is trying to woo Úna even though she is engaged to Séamas Ó Hiarainn. Úna’s mother and neighbours conspire with Séamas to banish the poet. Setting: Teach feiliméara i gCúige Mumhan c.1800. (See notice at Playography Ireland- online; accessed 23.09.2021.) Note: The song “Casadh an tSugain” appears on p.195 of Hardiman’s Minstrelsy (1831).

Pluralities of Hyde: Hyde dedicated his first book, Leabar Sgéuaigheachta (1889), to Euseby Digby Cleaver, a generous supporter of Irish who suggested his publish it, with the words, ‘Of you that saying of the Roman is true - except to change one word, nihil Hibernicum alienum a me puto [nothing human is alien to me].’

L. McManuswrote a novel, The Professor of Erin (1918), in which Douglas Hyde serves as a model for the central character, who preaches the docrine of Irish cultural de-anglicisation.

Birthday gift: The Irish volunteers were founded on 25 Nov [1913] on the same calendar day as Hyde’s lecture on ‘The Necessity, &c.’ (1893).

Hyde on stage: Photo of Hyde as Michael Hanrahan in The Twisting of the Rope’ (1901) printed in James W. Flannery, Yeats and the Idea of a Theatre (Toronto: Macmillan 1976; rep. pb. Yale UP 1989), Pl. 2, taken from Henderson Coll., Nat. Lib. of Ireland.

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James Joyce (1): Stephen’s poem in “Proteus” chapter of Ulysses contains the phrase ‘mouth to her mouth’ which is extracted from another in Hyde’s poem “My Grief on the Sea” from the Love Songs. (It is, in fact, taken from the English poetic translation rather than either the original Gaelic poem or the literal transcription in Hiberno-English at the bottom of the page.)

And my love came behind me—
He came from the South;
His breast to my bosom,
His mouth to my mouth.

Further: In Ulysses this becomes the autograph poem which Stephen scribbles on a library call-slip in the “Proteus” chapter: ‘He comes, pale vampire, through storm his eyes, his bat sails bloodying the sea, mouth to her mouth’s kiss. ... Mouth to her kiss. No. Must be two of em. Glue em well. Mouth to her mouth's kiss. / His lips lipped and mouthed fleshless lips of air: mouth to her womb. Oomb, allwombing tomb.’ Joyce held a copy of Love Songs of Connacht [1893] (London; T. Fisher Unwin; Dublin: M. H. Gill 1905), stamped “J.J.”, in his Library in Trieste. (See Richard Ellmann, The Consciousness of James Joyce, Faber, p.113 [Appendix].)

[ See pages of Hyde’s Abhráin Grádh Chuige Connacht / Love Songs of Connacht [1893; 5th edn.] (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan 1909) - as attached. ]

James Joyce (2): The “Scylla and Charybdis” episode of Ulysses contains allusions to Hyde, viz. - Mr. Best. ‘I was showing him [Haines] Jubainville’s book. He’s quite enthusiastic, don’t you know, about Hyde’s Lovesongs of Connacht. I couldn’t bring him in to hear the discussion. He’s gone to Gill’s to buy it.’ (Ulysses; Bodley Head Edn. p.238). Elselwhere in the chapter, a remark addressed to Mulligan by the librarian Lyster: ‘Haines missed you, he said. Did you meet him? He’ll see you after at the D.B.C. [Dublin Baking Co. - a restaurant]. He’s gone to Gill’s to buy Hyde’s Lovesongs of Connacht (ibid., p.253). There is a further allusion to ‘those delightful lovesongs with which the writer who conceals his identity under the graceful pseudonym of the Little Sweet Branch has familiarised the bookloving world’ in “Cyclops” (ibid., p.404).

James Joyce (3) - Hyde’s Irish-verse theory and Shakespeare’s ‘lean unlovely English’: In “Scylla and Charybdis” Stephen Dedalus appears to mentally recite a quatrain from Hyde on the nature of a classical Irish rhyme-scheme called deirhihde which Hyde wrote as a dedicatory note to his Story of Irish Irish Literature(1894). The original - which stands as an epilogue in the original - reads:

Bound thee forth my Booklet quick.
To greet the Polished Public.
Writ—I ween’t was not my Wish—
In lean unlovely English.

Further: As Hyde uses it, the phrase and the quatrain - which Joyce accurately reproduces - are framed as an apology for sending his book forth in English in spite of its Irish cultural subject-matter. Later on in the same chapter of Ulysses, Joyce/Stephen inserts the isolated phrase (‘lean unlovely English’: Bodley Head Ulysses, U252) as a parenthetical description of Shakespeare’s literary style. (It is literally in brackets on the page in Ulysses.) In fact, Hyde’s quatrain is itself an example of the metre in question. The implication is that Stephen has already decided to apply Hyde’s phrase to Shakespeare rather than its intended object - about which he has no opinion - in his prior cogitations on the topic. We have seen him, in the Proteus episode rehearsing similar ideas but not, in fact, his thoughts on Shakespeare, and it is there that his poem which steals a phrase from Hyde’s verse is found (i.e., ‘mouth to her mouth’). The curiousity here is that, while Stephen knows the quatrain by heart, he expends the telling phrase in a parethetical and throwaway spirit when the occasion arises. This might be called learning lightly carried but in fact it is a testimony to the art of the chapter since we have already met the quatrain and immediately recognise its canny if surprising application to Shakespeare when it falls into place in Stephen’s spoken account of the Bard. In fact the novel (Ulysses), and hence the author (Joyce), have already given Stephen's erudition its full credit and the two incidences of the phrase fall in the chapter in an utterly complementary fashion. [BS; March 2022.]

James Joyce (4): In the “Cyclops” chapter, Joyce makes fun of Hyde in connection with the central character, modelled on founder of the GAA, whose dog Garryowen is endowed with ancient Irish literary gifts: ‘Our greatest living phonetic expert (wild horses shall not drag it from us!) has left no stone unturned in his efforts to delucidate and compare the verse recited and has found it bears a striking resemblance (the italics are ours) to the ranns of ancient Celtic bards. We are not speaking so much of those delightful lovesongs with which the writer who conceals his identity under the graceful pseudonym of the Little Sweet Branch has familiarised the bookloving world but rather (as a contributor D. O. C. points out in an interesting communication published by an evening contemporary) of the harsher and more personal note which is found in the satirical effusions of the famous Raftery and of Donal MacConsidine to say nothing of a more modern lyrist at present very much in the public eye.’ The Little Sweet Branch is, of course Douglas Hyde under his oft-used pseudonym. [BS.]

See further remarks on Hyde in Ulysses - as attached.

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George Petrie: Douglas Hyde quotes Petrie’s memories of being asked by one Dr Brinkley, TCD and President of the Academy, on addressing the RIA, if he meant to say that there was the slightest evidence of acquaintance with the arts of civilised life before the arrival of the English [xii]. Hyde continues, ‘As to the civilisation of the early Irish upon which Petrie insisted, there is no longer room for the very shadow of a doubt.’ [See Literary History of Ireland, 1901 ed., p.xiii.]

Edmund Spenser: In citing Spenser in his Literary History of Ireland, Hyde substitutes the word ‘translated’ for ‘quoted’ [ See under Spenser, infra.]

W. B. Yeats: Yeats’s review Hyde’s Beside the Fire was reprinted in The Celtic Twilight as ‘The Four Winds of Desire’.

Namesake: Douglas Arnold Hyde (1911-1950) [var. 1949] is the author of I Believed: The Autobiography of a Former British Communist (1961), The Peaceful Assault: The Pattern of Subversion (1963), United We Fall (1964), and Security in Rural Areas (1968), all anti-communist works involving the doctrine that we should learn from the loyalty and discipline of communist states to resist their influence.

Irish nick-name: That Hyde was referred to in Irish as An Craoibhin Aoibhinn, translating as “the delightful little branch”, is noted p.35, Joseph Sweeney, ‘Why “Sinn Féin?”’, Éire-Ireland, 6, 2 (Summer 1971), pp.33-40.

Brigid Murphy: A certain Brigid Murphy was among the first to volunteer to work in the campaign office of Mary Robinson, candidate for the Irish Presidency, when it opened in the basement of 15 Merrion Square, Dublin. Fergal Finlay writes: ‘over coffee one monring, the talk turned to Áras an Uachtaráin. Nobody there had ever seen the inside of the Áras, and there was a great deal of curiosity about what it was like. / “I can tell you about it,” said Brigid, “I used to work there.” It transpired that fifty-one years earlier, Brigid had retired from [62] Áras an Uachtaráin - because she had got married. Before that, she had been Secretary to Douglas Hyde, the first President of Ireland. At the time she worked in the Áras, every member of staff spoke Irish fluently - except the butler, because it had been impossible to procure an Irish-speaking butler! / Brigid had never taken part in a political campaign in her life until the day she head that Mary Robinson was going to be a candidate for the Park.’ (Finlay, Mary Robinson: A President with a Purpose, Dublin: O’Brien Press 1990, pp.62-63; see also photo-port with Robinson, ibid., p.79.)

Mary Robinson, President of Ireland, quoted Hyde - a graduate and fellow of Trinity College Dublin - on receiving of her Hon. Doct. at TCD in 1992 (as reported in The Irish Times). [Incomplete notice.]

Origins of name of Sinn Féin: P. S. O’Hegarty writing in The Shan Van Vocht (March 1897), implies that Douglas Hyde was responsible for the name Sinn Féin: ‘Dr. Douglas Hyde, who will not be accused by anyone of being a politician, has a poem in Irish, “Waiting for Help”, the last verse of which is ‘Is mithid fios do bheith / Ag gach aon amadán / Nac bhfuil gair-faire / Is fiú aon aire / Acht ceann, Sinn Féin Amháin!’ O ’Hegarty translates Hyde as ‘It is time for every fool to recognise that there is only one watchword which is worth anything - Ourselves Alone ’ (O ’Hegarty, Sinn Féin an Illustration, 1919, p.20; cited p.35 in Joseph Sweeney, ‘Why “Sinn Féin?”’, Éire-Ireland, 6, 2 (Summer 1971), pp.33-40.) Sweeney further cites T. P. Coogan: ‘The name Sinn Féin (Ourselves Alone) is said to derive from an old Irish story about a servant who returned home drunk one day - errand unaccomplished, his master’s money spent - and refused to tell what had happened to anyone outside the family. He just muttered “sinn fein, sinn fein” - meaning, “it’s a matter for ourselves alone.”’ (Coogan, Ireland Since the Rising, 1966, p.6; Sweeney p.34.) Also cites Émile Caillet, Les origines du mouvement sinn-fein en Irlande (1921). See further under Robert Mitchel Henry [supra].

Portraits of Douglas Hyde incl. “D. Hyde” by Gaetano de Gennaro, pastel on paper, held at Aras an Uachtaráin (see Anne Crookshank, Ulster Mus. 1965). See also an early photo. port. in W. P. Ryan, Irish Literary Revival (1894); pencil drawing on paper by John Butler Yeats, signed 1895; purchased by NGI on sale of Lady Gregory’s collection, 1932; an unsigned plaster-cast head, discovered on Francis St., Dublin, by Dr. and Mrs. F. S. Stewart, now cast in bronze, and presented to the Douglas Hyde gallery, TCD; contemporaneous copy of same in Sligo Civic Museum; and a drawing on cream coloured paper, signed Seán O’Sullivan, 1936 [NGI].

Namesake: Douglas [Arnold] Hyde, author of The Answer to Communism ([London:] Paternoster Publications 1949), I Believed: Autobiography of a Former Communist (1950), and From Communism towards Catholicism: ... a slightly expanded version of articles published in the “Catholic Herald” [1948]; Communism from the Inside [1948]; with Francis Dufay, Red Star versus the Cross: the pattern of persecution (1950); The Mind Behind New China (1956); Confrontation in the East: a background book (1965); The Roots of guerrilla warfare (1968), &c.

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